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Jorge Pereira

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« em: Abril 27, 2007, 06:54:48 pm »
The SAN ANTONIO (LPD 17) Class of amphibious transport dock ships represents the Navy and Marine Corps' future in amphibious warfare, and is one of the cornerstones in the strategic plan known as "Forward...from the sea". The multi-mission San Antonio class will be the first ships designed to accommodate all three elements of the Marine Corps' "mobility triad," the new tilt-rotor MV-22 Osprey aircraft, the advanced amphibious assault vehicle (AAAV), and the landing craft air cushion (LCAC). It is designed to support embarking, transporting, and landing elements of a Marine landing force in an assault by helicopters, landing craft, amphibious vehicles, and by a combination of these methods to conduct primary amphibious warfare missions.

As of October 1999 it was reported that the LPD-17 could cost as much $245 million above the original estimate, a 41 percent cost increase for the first ship in that class. And as of March 2000 Litton Industries was about 30 percent over budget and 10 months behind schedule in building the LPD-17, which was estimated to cost $802 million -- $185 million more than its $617-million target cost.

The keel for the first ship of the LPD 17 class was laid in December 2000 at Avondale Shipyard and delivery for the lead ship, USS SAN ANTONIO, was slated for September 2003, a delay of one year from the 1999 plan. Prospective crewmembers are expected to begin arriving in the New Orleans area 13 months prior to ship delivery. Production on USS NEW ORLEANS (LPD-18) and USS MESA VERDE (LPD-19) commenced January 2001. Their initially projected comissioning dates have also slipped along with the schedule for the lead ship. As of early 2001 it was anticipated that the schedules for the fourth and subsequent units would remain as originally planned.

The President's budget request for FY 2001 included only 8-ships, an increase of two ships over the previous year. The Conference report on the FY '01 Defense Appropriations Bill (H.R. 4576) reduced this request and returned the naval build rate to only 6-ships per year. Specifically, the conferees reduced the president's SCN budget request from $12.3 billion to $11.6 billion. Roughly $1 billion was cut from the LPD-17 amphibious ship program leaving the Navy and Marine Corps with only $560 million in advance procurement rather than two ships. The conference report did, however provide advance construction authority, which the Navy could use to enter into a contract for the 2 ships (LPD-21 and LPD-22) if the Navy determines sufficient funds are available.

The Fiscal Year 2002 budget request included $421 million for Advanced Procurement efforts for the next four ships of this 12-ship program. This funding will stabilize the vendor base and support planning and material procurement to commence construction of the next two ships in Fiscal Year 2003, resulting in construction of these ships on a Fiscal Year 2002 schedule. Providing full funding for two LPD 17 Class ships in Fiscal Year 2002 will not further accelerate the schedule for LPD 21 and LPD 22, since the procurement of material required for construction is already funded. Lead ship construction commenced in the summer of 2000 at Avondale. LPD 19 construction commenced in July 2001 at Bath Iron Works. Subsequent to the Fiscal Year 2001 budget review, both the Navy and industry conducted independent assessments of the design progress necessary to support production of the lead ship. These reviews identified a projected additional 14-month adjustment (for a total of 24 months) to the lead ship, resulting in delivery of the LPD 17 in November 2004. They attributed the delay primarily to completion of detail design and translation of that design into detailed production instructions. The design process was proving more difficult and time-consuming than originally estimated; however, this new computer aided design process is yielding a much higher quality product. Production schedules for LPD 18 and follow ships were adjusted to reflect the delay to the lead ship and to ensure efficient follow ship construction at the respective shipyards.

As of December 31, 2001, LPD 17 program costs increased $6,603.1 million (+75.2%) from $8,777.6 million to $15,380.7 million, due primarily to a quantity increase of 4 ships from 8 to 12 ships (+$3,606.0 million) and associated schedule and estimating allocations* (+$733.9 million), a rescheduling of the FY03-04 ships to FY05-06 (+$87.1 million), revised cost estimates for LPD 17-20 (+$945.5 million), revised estimates for outfitting and post delivery associated with the quantity increase and the rescheduling of the FY03-09 ships (+$352.5 million), and an increase to LPD 21-28 to reflect increased labor hours, labor rates material costs, etc. (+$1,451.6 million). These increases were partially offset by FY02 Congressional reductions (-$266.3 million) and revised estimates for outfitting and post delivery for LPD 17-20 (-$227.2 million).

By mid-2002 the Pre-Commissioning crew was slated to join the LPD-17 San Antonio in October 2003, and delivery to the Navy is scheduled for November 2004 [as opposed to the previous schedule of September 2003]. The schedules for the subsequent units was also extended, with the delivery of the final unit delaye from December 2008 to August 2010.

The entire 12-ship class is being built by Northrop Grumman Corporation's (NYSE: NOC) Ship Systems sector, headquartered in Pascagoula, MS. By mid-2002 the Pentagon was close to reaching an agreement with Northrop Grumman and General Dynamics to swap the workload on the USS Arleigh Burke (DDG-51)-class Flight IIA destroyers and the San Antonio (LPD-17)-class amphibious transports. The plan would consolidate Flight IIA Arleigh Burke construction at GD's Bath Iron Works facility in Maine, with Northrop Grumman's Avondale shipyard in Mississippi focusing on getting the first ships in the LPD-17 class delivered to the Navy. Under the plan the four LPD-17s to be built by GD's Bath Iron Works were swapped for four DDG-51s scheduled for construction at Northrop Grumman's Ingalls shipyard. The plan is intended to minimize the risks on both programs [DDG-51 and LPD-17] and minimize the risks to the Navy in terms of cost and performance.

The San Antonio class will be the first designed, from the keel up, to execute Operational Maneuver From The Sea [OMFTS] and Ship to Objective Maneuver. The concept of Expeditionary Warfare under which the LPD 17 will operate is titled Operational Maneuver From The Sea (OMFTS). This concept employs a combination of strength, speed, and flexibility to exploit enemy weaknesses, create gaps in enemy defenses, and attack where the enemy least expects it. In support of OMFTS, the Amphibious Task Force (ATF) will operate initially well beyond the enemy's visual or sensor horizon from shore. This Over-The-Horizon (OTH) amphibious operation exploits the operational capabilities of the ATF and emphasizes the principles of tactical mobility, operational speed, and operational flexibility.

The LPD 17 will integrate with the existing amphibious ship force structure and the Navy's declining shore infrastructure. The LPD 17 class program will be the replacement for three classes of amphibious ships that have reached the end of their service life -- the LPD 4, LSD 36, and LST 1179 classes - and one class that has already been retired, the LKA 113. Naval amphibious ship forces with embarked Marine Corps units provide an essential component of the forward presence mission capability required to implement United States foreign policy. The LPD 17 ship class primary mission is Amphibious Warfare. Thus, LPD 17 must be able to embark, transport, and land elements of the landing force in an assault by helicopters (all USMC helos including MV22), landing craft (LCAC), amphibious vehicles (AAAV), and by a combination of these methods.

At one time as many as 46 ships of this class were planned. The 12-ship LPD 17 program is the final piece of the planned 36-ship amphibious force, comprised of LHAs, LHDs, LSD 41/49s, and LPD 17s. The LPD 17 will operate in various scenarios, as: a member of a three-ship, forward-deployed ARG with a Marine Expeditionary Unit, Special Operations Capable (MEU (SOC)) embarked; split ARG or single ship; and as a member of a 12-14 ship MEB.

As a class, these ships will overcome amphibious lift shortfalls caused by the decommissioning of aging LPDs, LSTs, LKAs, and LSDs. Maintaining projected delivery schedules and attaining operational readiness of this ship class is key to eradicating existing shortfalls in amphibious lift. Of particular concern is the high average age of amphibious ships which have high maintenance costs, higher manning levels, and lower reliability compared to ships being built today. The introduction of the LPD 17 into the fleet is intended to mitigate this problem.

The combat power of this ship is it's embarked Marines and their equipment. Defense against surface threats will be provided by two Mark 46 30mm gun systems. The ship also incorporates the latest quality of life standards for the embarked sailors and Marines, including sit-up berthing, a ship services mall, a fitness center and a learning resource center/electronic classroom with the flexibility to accommodate mixed gender sailors and Marines. Medical facilities include 124 beds and two operating rooms. They are the first USN ships designed from the outset to accommodate women crewmembers.

The LPD 17 will have an LPD-4 class sized docking well to accommodate two LCAC air-cushion landing craft or four LCM(8) or nine LCM(6) or 20 LVT. There are two spots for helicopters of up to CH-53 size; three AH-1W or two CH-46 or one CH-53 or MV-22 Osprey are to be accommodated in the hangar. It will also be able to support AV-8B+ Harrier aircraft and also AH-1W attack helicopters. Resembling a greatly enlarged LPD, it will not have a significantly greater payload. Sulzer-Westinghouse 12ZA40S (10,000 bhp each) diesels are employed in the propulsion plant, and the ships have seven 700 kW air-conditioning plants. The ships have bow bulb, twin rudders, and no side-thrusters.

The San Antonio class design integrates the latest in command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (C4ISR) capability. These capabilities are further enhanced by additional, dedicated intelligence, mission planning, and command and control spaces. The shipboard wide area network (SWAN) developed for LPD 17 is a fiber optic shipwide large area computer network. The SWAN will support everything from combat systems to ship systems to command and control nodes to an integrated training system. This network also provides e-mail and internet access capability.

Combat systems include the Advanced Combat Direction System (ACDS) Block I, USQ-119C(V)27 Joint Maritime Command Information System (JMCIS), KSQ-1 amphibious assault direction system, SPQ-12(V) radar display distribution system, KSQ-1 amphibious assault direction system, and Mk 1 Ship Self-Defense System (SSDS). In addition, all will receive the Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC) system and will have Link 4A, 11, and 16 capability. Navigation suite to include WSN-5 inertial system, WRN-6(V)1 GPS receiver, WQN-1 channel-finder sonar, SSN-6 digital mapping system, UQN-4A echo-sounder, and WQN-2 doppler speed log.

The ship's automated combat system includes a highly capable sensor suite and weapons capability that provides for a robust self defense capability. The initial three units may not get the vertical SAM launch-cell group on the forecastle; space is reserved for the addition of further groups of Mk 41 cells forward. Two Mk 15 Mod. 12 Phalanx 20-mm CIWS were originally to have been installed and may still be on the initial units due to delays in the Sea Sparrow ESSM development program. LPD 22 will be the first to have the Project Akcita air-defense sensor and weapon integration system, which will be backfitted in earlier units; a new D-band radar would replace the SPS-48E.

Ensuring that the ship maintains a robust self defense capability as threat systems evolve is key to survivability in the littoral environment where the ship will fight. In June 1996, the Navy received Milestone II approval for the baseline design of the LPD-17 ship class. The design included a self-defense suite consisting of a SPS-48E radar, a SPQ-9B radar, a SLQ-32(V2) electronic warfare system or its successor, a Ship Self Defense System MK-2, a Cooperative Engagement Capability node for sensor fusion, two Rolling Airframe Missile launchers, an Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile (ESSM) vertical launcher and associated target illuminators, and a decoy launcher. At that time, the Navy realized that the ESSM program schedule would not mesh with the production schedule of the first two ships in the class and decided to reserve space and weight in the ship design for the missile system and launcher. However, the Navy still planned to build the remaining 10 ships in the class with the ESSM and its launcher.

During internal deliberations on the Navy's fiscal year 1999 budget, the Navy decided to remove projected funding for the ESSM and its launcher from the LPD-17 budget in order to fund the cruiser conversion program and other shipbuilding and conversion efforts. However, the Navy directed Avondale Industries to reserve space and weight for the ESSM in the design of all 12 LPD-17 class ships.

In 1998, various congressional committees directed the Navy to prepare an analysis of alternatives to the LPD-17 baseline design, including an evaluation of the AN/SPY-1 radar and its associated Aegis combat system, multifunction radar, and the ESSM. The March 1999 results of the Navy analysis confirmed that the baseline design without the ESSM could meet the near- and mid-term threat at the least cost. As a result of this assessment, the Navy does not plan to equip the LPD-17 class ships with the ESSM. However, if the threat materializes as currently predicted, the Navy could later add improved variants of the ESSM and the Rolling Airframe Missile as weapon modifications on these ships. These improved variants are yet to be developed. In addition, if the threat warrants it, the Navy could also back-fit multifunction and volume search radar on the LPD-17, when they become available.

The SPS-73 system is a commercial surface search radar that replaced the SPS-67 and SPS-64 radars. More reliable than the other two radars, the SPS-73 consolidates training requirements, reduces maintenance, and possesses lower acquisition costs. The net result is a better radar that will save as much as $30 million dollars over the lifetime of the 12-ship LPD 17 class

The hull is designed to reduce cost of fabrication and shaped to reduce radar cross-section. LPD 20 and later were initially intended to have additional reduced radar cross-section features, which were brought forward to be incorporated from the outset. LPD 17's design optimizes radar cross section signature by streamlining topside design and incorporating reduced radar cross section signature technologies including a boat valley instead of boat deck, removable coverings over the rescue boat and fueling at sea stations, and accommodation ladders that fold into the ship's hull. The advanced enclosed mast/sensors, which enclose the ship's radars and communications antennas, characterizes the ship's distinctive profile.

 The Advanced Enclosed Mast/Sensor (AEM/S) System was selected for installation on SAN ANTONIO-class amphibious transport dock ships. The LPD-17 AEM/S System is an octagonal, detachable structure that enables affordable modular upgrade of future combat sensors and Command, Control, Communications, Computer, and Intelligence (C4I) systems. The Office of Naval Research and the LPD-17 program office undertook a risk mitigation effort to leverage the Navy's investment in the AEM/S System ATD. The LPD-17 transition will build on and extend the technology developed by the demonstration, significantly reducing cost and risk.

The AEM/S System mast [a 93-foot-high hexagonal structure 35 feet in diameter ] is constructed of a multi-layer, frequency-selective composite material designed to allow passage of own-ship sensor frequencies with very low loss while reflecting other frequencies. The mast's shape is designed to provide a smooth silhouette to reduce radar cross section. Signature and electro-magnetic design requirements are based on criteria associated with sensor and antenna performance, electro-magnetic interference, lighting protection electromagnetic shielding, and electrical bonding and grounding.

The AEM/S System mast is an enclosed structure that protects radars and communication antennas from weather exposure and provides access for repairs, thus greatly reducing maintenance costs and risk of failure. The top half is divided into two radome-like compartments; the upper compartment houses the Mk 23 Target Acquisition System (TAS) antenna and the lower encloses the AN/SPS-40 air search antenna. Structural design requirements for strength and stiffness meet Fleet requirements for vibration, shock, and fatigue.

Participating in the development, design, and construction of the AEM/S System were representatives of the Office of Naval Research, Naval Sea Systems Command, Naval Research Laboratory, Carderock and Dahlgren Divisions of the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Naval Command and Control and Ocean Surveillance Center, and Norfolk Naval Shipyard. Industry participants were Ingalls Shipbuilding, Seemann Composites, Mission Research Corporation, Material Sciences Corporation, Ohio State University, and Analysis & Technology.

Construction started on the Advanced Enclosed Mast/Sensors (AEM/S) in mid-2002.

Reduced operational costs and an improved capability to incorporate technological advances over its 40-year service life are also essential design objectives for LPD 17. In working to accomplish these objectives, the design team incorporated hundreds of suggestions and recommendations from more than 1,000 sailors and Marines in the "Design for Ownership" process to ensure that these ships will meet their needs throughout the first half of the 21st century.

The LPD 17 program represents the Navy's best case of capitalizing on acquisition reform. Examples include:

early industry involvement to solicit ideas on design, production and cost reduction;
teaming of shipbuilders and combat systems integrators to pool organizational strengths;
developing a "teaming for life" concept where the winner of the LPD 17 will have the opportunity to provide the Navy with life cycle support;
reduced Mil-Specs requirements to only those few that are absolutely essential.
Request for proposals were issued April 1996, with the "winner-take-all'' contract awarded December 1996 to a consortium of Avondale Shipyards, Bath Iron Works, Hughes, Loral, Sperry Marine, CAE, AT&T, and Intergraph, with every third ship to be built at Bath's facility in Maine and the others in Louisiana. On December 17, 1996 Avondale Industries, Inc., Avondale, LA, was awarded a $641,370,625 cost-plus-award-fee contract for detail design, integration and construction of USS San Antonio (LPD 17), Amphibious Transport Dock Ship, with options for construction of LPD-18 and LPD-19. On April 7, 1997 the General Accounting Office (GAO) denied the protest by the Ingalls Shipbuilding team with respect to the initial contract to design, construct and support the LPD-17.

The contract award provides for options exercisable by the US Navy for two additional LPD vessels to be built by the alliance. Under the terms of an agreement between the alliance members, Avondale will build the vessel covered by the December 1996 contract and, if the US Navy exercises the two options, Avondale would also construct the second while Bath would construct the third of the three LPD-17 vessels. Raytheon is responsible for total ship integration. In accordance with the U.S. Navy's requirement of a streamlined contractual relationship, the alliance's agreement provides that Avondale will act as the prime contractor for all three vessels, and as such, Avondale will be responsible for submitting invoices for not only its own costs, but also any costs incurred by Bath and Raytheon. If the US Navy awards contracts to the alliance to construct all twelve ships, Avondale would construct eight ships and Bath would construct four ships.

The operational flexibility of Amphibious Readiness Groups (ARGs) will be significantly enhanced with the delivery of the USS San Antonio, the first of nine landing assault ships to be procured between FY 1996 and FY 2003. This represents a reduction from twelve ships initially planned over this period in 1997. The FY 1999 budget request included $638 million for the second of this 12 ship program, with the first unit planned for FY 02 delivery. This amount, in conjunction with the $96M of advance procurement provided by Congress in FY 1998, fully funds this second ship. Construction of LPD 18, the second ship of the class, was scheduled to begin in FY 99 with procurement of two additional ships planned for FY 2000, with a total procurement of an additional nine ships by fiscal year 2003. The plan was to procure a total of twelve LPD 17s to replace 27 amphibious ships from the classes now in service. This plan will not only modernize amphibious forces, but will also result in significant manpower and life-cycle cost savings by reducing the total fleet manning required for the older amphibious ships that are replaced.

Preliminary OT-IIB findings suggest that the LPD 17 will provide considerable amphibious lift as well as advances in shipboard application of information technology, reduced radar cross-section, and improved habitability for the crew and embarked Marines. The Program Manager, however, has not corrected some of the design deficiencies identified as early as 1996, according to DOT&E. These deficiencies include a lack of defense against attack aircraft and torpedoes,and problems with storage of supplies.

Um dos primeiros erros do mundo moderno é presumir, profunda e tacitamente, que as coisas passadas se tornaram impossíveis.

Gilbert Chesterton, in 'O Que Há de Errado com o Mundo'



Nuno Bento

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« Responder #1 em: Abril 30, 2007, 12:52:55 am »
Um bichinho desses não deve ser nada barato.
Quais são as suas performances e capacidade de transporte :?:


luis filipe silva

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« Responder #2 em: Abril 30, 2007, 04:48:59 am »
Nuno Bento escreveu:
Um bichinho desses não deve ser nada barato.
Quais são as suas performances e capacidade de transporte

Displacement: 25,296 tons full load
Dimensions: 683.7 x 104.6 x 23 feet/208.4 x 31.9 x 7 meters
Propulsion: 4 diesels, 2 shafts, 42,000 bhp, 21 knots
Crew: 422
Well Deck: approx. 170 x 50 feet; for 2 LCAC or 4 LCM(8) or 6 LCM(6)
Troops: 759 + 97 transient berths
Cargo: 25,402 square feet vehicle, 25,548 cubic feet bulk
Radar: SPS-48E 3-D air search, SPQ-9B search
Fire Control: SWY-2 missile control; CEC system
EW: SLQ-32(V)3 active jamming, SLA-10B, Mk53 SRBOC decoy RL, SLQ-25A Nixie torpedo countermeasure
Aviation: aft flight deck; landing for 2-4 helicopters; hangar for 1 CH-53E or 2 CH-46 or 1 MV-22 or 3 UH/AH-1
Armament: 2 21-cell RAM, 2 30mm Mk46 Bushmaster DP, 12.7mm MG
Concept/Program: A new, large, highly capable LPD class intended to operate independently or as part of an amphibious group (with an LHA/LHD and LSD). Although nominally intended to replace LSTs, LKAs and LPDs decommissioned during the 1990's, they will actually replace the existing LPDs and LSDs. The program has been extensively delayed during the design phase.

Builders: Northrop Grumman Ship Systems, New Orleans, LA and Pascagoula, MS.

Design: Considerably larger than any previous LPD or LSDs; large cargo capability, and major command capability. Stealthy design; designed for lower operating costs, and will incorporate significant new technology. Will have large enclosed composite masts, with radars housed internally. There is provision for a 16-cell VLS, but this will not be fitted. The 30mm Bushmaster turrets are taken from the AAAV assault vehicle.
Luis Filipe Silva



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« Responder #3 em: Abril 30, 2007, 11:11:05 am »
LPD-17 Reliability Issues Surface Again
Posted 23-Apr-2007 07:20
Related stories: Americas - USA
Also on this day: 23-Apr-2007 »

"Need a tow?"
(click to view full)In March 2005, "Cost Overruns, Budget Uncertainties Hurting USN and Contractors" noted:

"With the help of a $50 million grant from the state of Louisiana, Northrop Grumman has modernized production at Avondale, and the company is now projecting completion of future amphibious ships at a much faster pace than in the past. Nevertheless, scathing Navy inspector general reviews that detailed shoddy construction and basic workmanship problems at Avondale are cause for legitimate concern in areas that will not be fixed by modernization alone."

While some teething problems are not uncommon for new ship classes, LPD-17 San Antonio failed to complete a series of sea trials in late March 2007, and could not be sea-tested during a five-day inspection period because one of its two steering systems completely failed. Navy inspectors found major defects in 3/17 categories, and the ship now faces $36 million in repairs during the next 3 months. The Virginia Pilot reports: "New Navy ship San Antonio found to be rife with flaws."

http://www.coltoncompany.com/newsandcom ... INSURV.pdf
I hope that you accept Nature as It is - absurd.

R.P. Feynman


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