Africa - G5 Sahel

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Africa - G5 Sahel
« em: Novembro 19, 2019, 11:21:25 am »
France and Sahel partner forces conduct ‘unprecedented’ operation in Burkina Faso and Mali

17-day operation combined 1,400 troops from France, the G5 Sahel Joint Force, Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger

Forces from the France-led Operation Barkhane and its partner forces in the Sahel region of central Africa carried out an ‘unprecedented’ 17-day operation against ‘armed terrorist groups’ in Burkina Faso and Mali.

Between November 1 and 17, “the G5 Sahel Joint Force, the Armed Forces of Burkina Faso (FABF) and the Malian Armed Forces (FAMa), supported by Desert Battle Group ‘Steel’ conducted Operation Bourgou IV in the Déou area of Burkina Faso and Boulikessi area of Mali, the French Armed Forces ministry said in a Monday, November 18 release.

More than 1,400 soldiers from Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger and France took part in the operation, and more than half of those involved were from partner forces, “which represents an unprecedented participation in an operation of this magnitude,” the ministry said.

Operation Bourgou IV “resulted in 24 individuals, being put out of action,” and the seizure of 64 vehicles, around 100 phones, and ammunition.

Carried out simultaneously in Mali and Burkina Faso, the operation aimed to disrupt the logistics of “armed terrorist groups” and hinder their activity in the region.

FABF and the Barkhane force conducted reconnaissance in the Tofagala forest in northeast Burkina Faso, taking control of dozens of camps there and confirming the presence of armed terrorist groups, the ministry said.

On the night of November 7-8, a temporary base for Burkinabé and Barkhane forces was “harassed by armed terrorist groups,” the ministry said.

“Enemy combatants” were spotted a few hundred metres from the base, and warning shots were fired “to deter them from undertaking any attack.”

On its Facebook page, the French armed forces said 25mm cannon warning shots and 81mm mortar flare shells were fired were fired between 7 p.m. and midnight, but at about 1:30 a.m, a column of pick-up trucks was observed moving towards the temporary base.


French soldiers work to deter an attack on a temporary Barkhane base in Burkina Faso during Operation Bourgou IV, November 2019.


A French VBCI armored infantry fighting vehicle fires its 25 mm cannon to deter an attack on a temporary Barkhane base in Burkina Faso during Operation Bourgou IV, November 2019.

“A column of pick-up trucks that began its advance towards the bases” and was fired on by 25 mm cannon, machine guns, mortars and light infantry weapons, “forcing it to stop its assault and exfiltrate itself,” the ministry said.

In Mali, partner forces supported by Barkhane “contributed to the strengthening of the defences of the Boulikessi post.” Forests in the area were searched, “undermining the logistics of armed terrorist groups and hampering their supply chain.”

In Iate September, at least 40 Malian soldiers were killed in simultaneous raids claimed by al-Qaeda-linked JNIM in Boulikessi and Mondoro, near central Mali’s border with Burkina Faso, one of the deadliest attacks against Mali’s military in recent insurgent violence. The troops were from a battalion under G5 Sahel Joint Force command.

Former colonial power France has been trying to build international support for a new military force to work alongside its 4,500-strong Operation Barkhane counter-terrorism mission in the Sahel.

French plans for a new international special operations task force for the Sahel were first reported in early October, and on November 5, Armed Forces Minister Florence Parly said that France expected the new force – dubbed “Takuba” – to deploy in Mali by 2020. Around a dozen European states “have expressed an interest in taking part in this initiative,” a French Armed Forces spokesperson said.

Estonia is the first partner to confirm a special operations forces deployment to Takuba. A defense ministry spokesperson told The Defense Post that special forces will deploy to Mali in the second half of 2020 and that force will ‘assist, advise and accompany’ the Malian Armed Forces.

Last week, senior officials said the United States is seeking a meeting of the Coalition against ISIS early in 2020 to focus on threats in West Africa and the Sahel.
International operations in the Sahel

In 2012 a Tuareg separatist uprising against the state was exploited by Islamist extremists linked to al-Qaeda who took key cities in Mali’s desert north.

France began its Operation Serval military intervention in its former colony early the next year, driving the jihadists from the towns, and the MINUSMA peacekeeping force was then established.

But the militant groups have morphed into more nimble formations operating in rural areas, and the insurgency has gradually spread to central and southern regions of Mali and across the borders into neighboring Burkina Faso and Niger. Large swathes of Mali remain outside government control, and inter-ethnic bloodshed is a regular occurrence.

The U.N. says that since January more than 1,500 civilians have been killed in Burkina Faso and Mali, and more than one million people have been internally displaced across the five Sahel states – more than twice the number displaced in 2018. Access has become increasingly difficult, but 12 million people are in need of humanitarian assistance.

Many armed groups are active in the Sahel region, including Islamic State-affiliated groups, but the majority of attacks are attributed to JNIM, which formed in March 2017 from a merger of several smaller groups including the Sahara branch of al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb, Ansar Dine and al-Mourabitoun. JNIM’s leadership has pledged allegiance to al-Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri.

The Serval mission evolved in August 2014 into Operation Barkhane, and roughly 4,500 French troops are deployed in the region, including around 2,700 soldiers in Mali.

But Barkhane has a growing international dimension, with European partners sending more troops and equipment. Denmark is to send two helicopters and up to 70 troops to support Barkhane in December and Estonia is to almost double the size of its Barkhane contingent in 2020. Chinook helicopters from the United Kingdom currently support the operation.

Operation Barkhane focuses activity in insurgent-hit Mali, Niger and Burkina Faso, and troops work alongside other international operations, including the 14,000-strong MINUSMA U.N. stabilization mission in Mali and the G5 Sahel Joint Force (FCG5S), a planned 4,500-strong joint counter-terrorism force comprising troops from Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Niger and Mauritania.

Around 620 troops from 22 member states and five non-E.U. states work with the Malian Armed Forces and the FCG5S in European Union Training Mission – Mali, which has a mandate until May 2020. Around 14,000 FAMa personnel have been trained since the mission was established in 2013.

Earlier this month, AFRICOM said U.S. intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance flight operations had begun from Nigerien Air Base 201 in the northern city of Agadez.



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Re: Africa - G5 Sahel
« Responder #1 em: Novembro 26, 2019, 09:06:48 pm »
Colisão em voo entre dois helicópteros franceses durante uma operação no Sahel faz 13 mortos.

https://theaviationist.com/2019/11/26/thirteen-french-soldiers-killed-in-the-collision-of-two-military-helicopters-in-mali/
 

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Re: Africa - G5 Sahel
« Responder #2 em: Janeiro 13, 2020, 11:02:33 am »
Macron junta líderes do Sahel


 

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Re: Africa - G5 Sahel
« Responder #3 em: Janeiro 13, 2020, 11:28:25 pm »
França e países do Sahel reforçam aliança contra o terrorismo


 

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Re: Africa - G5 Sahel
« Responder #4 em: Fevereiro 21, 2020, 02:05:55 pm »
French actions ‘neutralize 50 terrorists’ near Mopti in central Mali


A French air force Reaper drone fitted with GBU-12 Paveway II laser-guided bombs flies near Niamey airbase in Niger

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Barkhane operations between February 9 and 17 targeted Islamic State and al-Qaeda affiliated militants

Around 50 militants were “neutralized” in actions carried out by the France-led Operation Barkhane targeting Islamic State and al-Qaeda affiliated fighters in Mali, according to an Armed Forces Ministry release.

The operations, conducted in two phases between February 9 and 17 around the central town of Mopti, were the result of “preparatory work and intelligence gathering that made it possible to characterize with certainty the activity of armed terrorist groups,” the Thursday, February 20 release said.

Around 30 motorcycles and two pickup trucks were destroyed, and weapons, telephones and electronic equipment were seized during the actions.

In the first operation, carried out northwest of Mopti between February 9 and 10, airstrikes conducted by Reaper drones and Mirage 2000 jet fighter aircraft along with combat helicopter engagements “neutralized some 20 armed combatants” including an Islamic State in the Greater Sahara officer.

The French Armed Forces groups fighters killed, injured or taken prisoner under the terms “neutralized” or taken “out of action,” according to AFP.

A second action was carried out between February 16 and 17 south of Mopti, “in a region where Katiba Macina is rampant.”

Katiba Macina is one of the constituent groups of JNIM, which has pledged allegiance to al-Qaeda.

Airstrikes and helicopter fire were accompanied by a helicopter-borne assault, and “some 30 jihadist fighters were put out of action.”

“These two operations, with their very heavy material and human toll, weaken the offensive potential of the armed terrorist groups in this region,” the ministry said.
FAMa ‘captures 3 foreign terrorist leaders’ near Mopti

On February 18, the day after the French action south of Mopti, the Malian Armed Forces (FAMa) tracked “terrorists” in the Somadougou area of the Mopti region, a FAMa release said.

“FAMa helicopters carried out precision airstrikes in the Somadougou sector as far as the village of Diallo on the Bankass road,” the release said.

Somadougou is around 28 km (17 miles) south of Mopti town, and Diallo is around 25 km further southeast.

“Several terrorists were killed, some weapons were abandoned, others destroyed,” and three “foreign terrorist leaders” were captured.

It is unclear whether the Barkhane and FAMa operations were related.

Earlier this week, the French ministry released information on two other Barkhane actions on February 8 and 13 near Hombori, which is around 280 km east of Mopti town.

Between February 6 and 7, the Barkhane force ‘neutralized’ around 20 terrorists “in the west of the Gourma region,” in an area where the “katiba is rampant.”

In mid-January, the ministry said more than 30 “terrorists” were “put out of action” in two commando operations in Mopti that apparently targeted Katiba Macina.
Growing French presence in the Sahel

The French military presence in the Sahel began in 2013 with Operation Serval in Mali, and evolved in August 2014 into Operation Barkhane, which has a mandate for counter-terrorism operations across the region. The Barkhane force focuses activity in insurgent-hit Mali, Niger and Burkina Faso, working alongside local troops and other international operations, including the regional G5 Sahel Joint Force (FCG5S), which comprises troops from Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, Chad and Mauritania, and MINUSMA, the U.N. stabiliization mission in Mali.

Earlier this month, Armed Forces Minister Florence Parly said that the number of French troops deployed to the Sahel would increase from 4,500 to 5,100.

France and the G5 Sahel states in January injected new urgency into the counter-terrorism fight, announcing a new Coalition for the Sahel which will see increased coordination between French and local forces. Barkhane and FCG5S forces operating under joint command will focus on the Mali-Burkina Faso-Niger tri-border zone, targeting Islamic State as a priority.

Barkhane is already building command coordination with Sahel Coalition partner forces, setting up dedicated coordination mechanisms in Niger’s capital Niamey and Chad’s capital N’Djamena, where Barkhane is headquartered, while Mali has launched Operation Maliko, a new counter-terrorism operation that will take into account cross-border, regional and international cooperation.

France has also been trying to build support for the new special operations Task Force Takuba that will train, advise, assist and accompany local forces in their fight against Islamic State and al-Qaeda affiliates in the region. Takuba will declare initial military capability in the summer and will be fully operational by the autumn.

France hopes that Takuba will comprise around 500 special forces personnel, according to Le Monde. The new French deployment will include around 50 special forces personnel who will form the nucleus of Takuba, Le Monde reported.

So far, Estonia, the Czech Republic, and Sweden have announced plans to contribute to Takuba, and discussions with Finland and Norway are reportedly ongoing, but Germany and the U.S. have declined.

Belgium is to contribute three staff officers to Takuba according to the Belga news agency, but the current caretaker government’s Foreign Minister Philippe Goffin told AFP on February 13 that committing troops to such an operation would require a government with a full mandate, plus the approval of parliament.

Barkhane already has an international dimension, with European partners contributing troops and equipment. Estonia is to almost double the size of its force protection contingent this year, Denmark has deployed two Merlin helicopters, and three Chinook helicopters from the United Kingdom currently support the operation.

Islamist insurgents in the Sahel

The complex insurgency in the Sahel began in Mali in 2012, when a Tuareg separatist uprising was exploited by al-Qaeda-linked extremists who took key cities in the desert north. Former colonial power France began its Operation Serval military intervention the following year, driving the jihadists from the towns.

But the militant groups morphed into more nimble formations operating in rural areas, and the insurgency gradually spread to central and southern regions of Mali and then into Burkina Faso and Niger.

More than 4,000 people were reported killed in militant attacks in the three countries last year, according to the U.N., and Secretary-General Antonio Guterres has warned that the spiraling violence in the Sahel has spread to coastal states of West Africa.

Many armed groups including Islamic State are active in the Sahel region, but the majority of attacks are attributed to JNIM, which formed in March 2017 from a merger of several smaller groups. JNIM’s leadership has pledged allegiance to al-Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri.

Since May 2019, ISIS has attributed insurgent activities in the Sahel area to ISWAP, its West Africa Province affiliate that split from Boko Haram in 2016, rather than to Islamic State in the Greater Sahara. ISWAP’s main area of operations is the Lake Chad area of Nigeria, Niger, Chad and Cameroon.

Macron has said the Sahel Coalition would prioritize the fight against ISIS in the Mali-Burkina Faso-Niger tri-border area because it is the most dangerous.
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Re: Africa - G5 Sahel
« Responder #5 em: Março 05, 2020, 06:04:57 pm »
France boosts Barkhane force to 5,100 troops to further focus on Mali-Burkina Faso-Niger tri-border area

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Some of the reinforcements "will be committed directly" to G5 Sahel Joint Forces and will "accompany them in combat," Parly says

France is to boost the number of troops deployed to its Operation Barkhane counter-terrorism mission in Africa’s Sahel region to 5,100, Armed Forces Minister Florence Parly said on Sunday, February 2.

President Emmanuel Macron and the Chief of the General Staff of the French Armed Forces General François Lecointre “took the decision to increase the number of troops deployed in the Sahel-Saharan strip to about 5,100, an increase of 600 soldiers,” Parly said in a statement.

Around 200 additional troops had already deployed to the region last month, but Lecointre said on January 22 that he was asking Macron for further French reinforcements accompanied by “additional logistical and intelligence” support.

“This is a major effort for the French Armed Forces: most of the reinforcements will be deployed in the so-called “three borders” zone between Mali, Burkina Faso and Niger,” Parly said.

“Another part of these reinforcements will be committed directly to the G5 Sahel forces to accompany them in combat,” she added.

Parly noted that Chad “should soon be deploying an additional battalion” in the tri-border zone within the regional G5 Sahel Joint Force (FCG5S), which also includes troops from Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger and Mauritania.

She also acknowledged last week’s announcement that the Czech Republic intends to send 60 troops to join the new France-led special operations Task Force Takuba in the Sahel.

“Further announcements should be made shortly, depending on the political and parliamentary calendars of the countries wishing to join us,” Parly added.

France has for months been trying to build support for Takuba. Parly said in November that France expected the new force to deploy in Mali by 2020. The Czech Republic is only the second country to publicly say it intends to to join the new task force, after Estonia said in November that it would deploy troops to Takuba. A defense ministry spokesperson told The Defense Post then that special forces will deploy to Mali in the second half of the year and that force will “assist, advise and accompany” the Malian Armed Forces.

Lecointre has said that Takuba will declare initial military capability in the summer and “will be fully operational by the autumn.”

Parly also said that France favors extending the mandate of the European Union Training Mission in Mali to “enable it to cooperate with the armed forces of other G5 countries and thus provide a larger part of their training.”

EUTM-Mali’s main objectives is to improve FAMa capacity, but it also works to support the operationalization of the FCG5S through dedicated advice and training. It has a mandate until May 2020 and costs around €20 million ($22 million) per year to maintain. More than 14,000 Malian Armed Forces (FAMa) personnel have been trained since the mission was established in February 2013.
France in the Sahel

The French military presence in the Sahel began in 2013 with Operation Serval in Mali, and evolved in August 2014 into Operation Barkhane, which has a mandate for counter-terrorism operations across the region. Roughly 4,700 French troops are currently deployed, and they focus activity in insurgent-hit Mali, Niger and Burkina Faso, working alongside local troops and other international operations, including the FCG5S and the United Nations stabilization mission in Mali, MINUSMA.

On January 13, Macron and the leaders of the G5 Sahel states announced a new Coalition for the Sahel which will see increased coordination between French and local forces focused on the Mali-Burkina Faso-Niger tri-border zone and targeting Islamic State as a priority. The new Sahel Coalition will see Barkhane and FCG5S forces operating under joint command.

Parly said on Sunday that Macron had told the defense council this week that “this major step in our engagement in the Sahel must mark a turning point both in the mobilization of our European partners and the ramp-up of G5 forces.”

Barkhane already has an international dimension, with European partners contributing troops and equipment. Denmark has deployed two Merlin helicopters and Estonia is to almost double the size of its Barkhane contingent this year. Chinook helicopters from the United Kingdom currently support the operation.
Islamist insurgents in the Sahel

The complex insurgency in the Sahel began in Mali in 2012, when a Tuareg separatist uprising was exploited by al-Qaeda-linked extremists who took key cities in the desert north. Former colonial power France began its Operation Serval military intervention the following year, driving the jihadists from the towns.

But the militant groups morphed into more nimble formations operating in rural areas, and the insurgency gradually spread to central and southern regions of Mali and across the borders into neighboring Burkina Faso and Niger.

Many armed groups including Islamic State are active in the Sahel region, but the majority of attacks are attributed to JNIM, which formed in March 2017 from a merger of several smaller groups. JNIM’s leadership has pledged allegiance to al-Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri.

Since May 2019, ISIS has attributed insurgent activities in the Sahel area to ISWAP, its West Africa Province affiliate that split from Boko Haram in 2016, rather than to Islamic State in the Greater Sahara. ISWAP’s main area of operations is the Lake Chad area of Nigeria, Niger, Chad and Cameroon.

Macron has said the Sahel Coalition would prioritize the fight against ISIS in the Mali-Burkina Faso-Niger tri-border area because it is the most dangerous.
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Re: Africa - G5 Sahel
« Responder #6 em: Março 25, 2020, 11:20:02 am »
Não é recente, mas “um exército marcha sobre o seu estômago”...


E RWS...
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Re: Africa - G5 Sahel
« Responder #7 em: Março 29, 2020, 12:41:12 am »
Portugal integra força militar europeia que vai ajudar Mali a combater milícias

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Até agora, o projeto, lançado por iniciativa da França, teve a adesão de cinco Estados: Bélgica, Dinamarca, Estónia, Países Baios e Portugal.
Portugal é um dos seis Estados europeus que participa com militares no conjunto de forças especiais que vão acompanhar os soldados do Mali no combate às várias milícias que operam neste país do Sahel, foi anunciado na sexta-feira.

O lançamento oficial da futura força-tarefa ('task-force', em inglês), designada 'Takuba' (designação de uma espada típica da região), foi feito por 11 Estados, mas só seis se comprometeram em participar com efetivos militares.

"Considerando que a situação de segurança no Mali e, de forma geral, no Sahel, continua a ser preocupante", Alemanha, Bélgica, Dinamarca, Estónia, França, Noruega, Países Baixos, Portugal, República Checa, Reino Unido e Suécia declararam o seu "apoio político à criação de uma 'task force'".

A função apontada a esta força é a de assistir as Forças Armadas malianas na luta contra os grupos terroristas e apoiar os esforços desenvolvidos atualmente pela Operação Barkhane e a Força Conjunta do G5 Sahel, conforme comunicado distribuído.

Esta força, que deve contar com centenas de efetivos, começa a operar este verão sob comando francês, na região do Liptako, nos confins do Níger e do Mali, onde têm pontos de apoio milícias como a que se designa Estado Islâmico no Grande Saara.

"Com a 'Takuba', os europeus mostram a sua capacidade de se mobilizar em conjunto pela sua segurança", reagiu na sexta-feira à noite a ministra das Forças Armadas francesa, Florence Parly, na rede social Twitter.

Não obstante, apesar de a declaração ser assinada por 11 Estados, apenas seis já se comprometeram em participar com efetivos militares.

Até agora, o projeto, lançado por iniciativa da França, teve a adesão de cinco Estados: Bélgica, Dinamarca, Estónia, Países Baios e Portugal.

A Suécia espera uma autorização parlamentar para confirmar a participação, com uma força de reação rápida helitransportada integrada por 150 militares. Solicitada, a Noruega anunciou na segunda-feira que renunciava a enviar soldados por falta de apoio político interno. A Alemanha também declinou participar na força.

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Re: Africa - G5 Sahel
« Responder #8 em: Abril 13, 2020, 11:48:22 pm »
 

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Re: Africa - G5 Sahel
« Responder #9 em: Junho 13, 2020, 12:30:39 pm »
‘Capture Not Possible:’ France’s Desert Operation Against Al-Qaeda Chief

 June 12, 2020

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In a desert wilderness in Mali, close to the Algerian border, pitted with isolated rocks and weighed by oppressive heat, French special forces and combat helicopters begin an operation.

At its climax, they claim one of the greatest successes of France’s deployment in the Sahel region of north Africa — the killing of the head of Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) Abdelmalek Droukdel.

The French military, for the first time, provided details on Thursday of how late last week it “neutralized” the man it has called “the third deputy” of Al-Qaeda’s leader, Ayman al-Zawahiri.

Officials describe the death of the Algerian Droukdel as the fruit of meticulous intelligence work. This was concluded by a military intervention in broad daylight, about ten kilometers (6.2 miles) from the Algerian border, east of the Malian town of Tessalit.

A source close to the operation said about 15 French special forces were dropped by at least two transport helicopters, as well as a Tiger combat helicopter and a Gazelle multipurpose helicopter, with a drone in support.

“The capture of Droukdel was not possible,” said the source, who asked not to be named. “The goal is not necessarily to kill,” said the official. But “in combat, the men see just rocks” with combatants cowering behind them. “They don’t know who is behind the gun.” The source added: “This type of individual does not surrender.”
‘Building Intelligence’

The army is not giving details of the exchanges that took place during the operation, merely confirming that fighting took place at close quarters.

“We knew that there was a target of interest in the region for two days. After that, it was all a work of mutual support, between the different sources of intelligence,” said the source. “It is a case of building it up,” said the official, without revealing the origin of the information but confirming the help of the United States.

Once the objective was identified and located, conditions in northern Mali at the beginning of the rainy season slowed down the progress of forces on the ground.

In the operation, one individual was captured and handed to the Malian authorities after being interrogated by the French forces. But the soldiers also seized important digital material, including phones, cards, and computers. Analyzing them may help explain what Droukdel, who was usually very discreet, was doing in the region.
‘Buried at the Scene’

There has for some time been major fighting between groups affiliated with Al-Qaeda with those of Islamic State in the Greater Sahara (IS-GS). These have been “violent” fights with “losses on both sides”, according to the French source.

It has not been ruled out that this could have prompted Droukdel’s presence in the area. “It’s a real question,” said the source, expressing hope that analysis would shed more light on this.

The IS-GS was designated in January as the number one enemy of France’s 5,000 strong anti-jihadist force Barkhane and its G5 Sahel allies of Mauritania, Chad, Mali, Niger, Burkina Faso. But, in the end, it was an Al-Qaeda figure who was killed in this operation.

“The fact that today we have focused a certain number of our forces on the most virulent and urgent threat has not distracted us from the surveillance of other branches”, said the source.

Once the operation was finished, the special forces “applied the standards of armed conflict: the enemy combatants were buried at the scene.” Meanwhile, the prisoner taken “will answer for his actions before the courts,” said the source.

The official praised the operational efficiency of the French forces on the ground and in the air, saying they were capable of deploying in a clandestine situation in full gear in temperatures of 45 degrees Celsius (113 degrees Fahrenheit).

In military terms, these are “extremely rustic conditions,” said the source.
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Re: Africa - G5 Sahel
« Responder #10 em: Julho 07, 2020, 04:41:00 pm »
España reforzará la presencia militar en África y reducirá tropas en Oriente Medio

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El objetivo de Defensa es incrementar el número de efectivos en el Sahel, azotado por el terrorismo y otras inestabilidades, y potenciar los equipos móviles de adiestramiento e instrucción en la región


Uno de los militares desplegados en Koulikoro (Mali) realiza una patrulla

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España va a virar hacia África el eje de sus misiones militares en el exterior. La inestabilidad derivada de las actividades terroristas y criminales, unida al incesante tráfico de personas y estupefacientes, aumenta las alarmas en una región prioritaria para España. El refuerzo de las capacidades en el Sahel se llevará a cabo en detrimento de otros despliegues, previsiblemente en Oriente Medio. El Estado Mayor de la Defensa (EMAD) y el Ministerio dirigido por Margarita Robles ya trabajan en el planeamiento de este nuevo orden en las operaciones internacionales.

Mali, Senegal, República Centroafricana y Somalia son los países en los que las Fuerzas Armadas mantienen despliegues permanentes de tropas. Además hay acuerdos de cooperación puntuales y periódicos con diversos países del Golfo de Guinea. Y en el Índico, la Armada coopera en la misión internacional contra la piratería. España considera que esas regiones son “prioritarias”, según fuentes militares consultadas por Vozpópuli, y estudian cómo llevar a cabo un refuerzo equilibrado -en recursos y efectivos- en el Sahel.

Entre los motivos que sustentan la reestructuración está la persistente actividad terrorista en la región. Menos de 1.500 kilómetros separan la frontera española y maliense, donde ahora se concentran el grueso de los esfuerzos militares de nuestro país (casi 300 efectivos antes de que estallase la crisis del coronavirus). Francia -recientemente neutralizó en Mali al líder de Al Qaeda en el norte de África, Abdelmalek Drukdel- ha pedido en varias ocasiones a la Unión Europea que redoble sus esfuerzos en la región.
Los casos afgano e iraquí

Defensa reducirá las capacidades desplegadas en escenarios como Afganistán tras el acuerdo firmado entre el Gobierno de Kabul con los talibán y la consecuente retirada de tropas de Estados Unidos. También se prevé el cierre de la principal base de las tropas españolas en Irak, la de Besmayah, y está pendiente ver cómo se reestructura esta misión, ahora reducida en efectivos por la crisis del coronavirus.

Por el contrario, España potenciará sus despliegues en suelo africano. Las mismas fuentes militares aseveran que las modificaciones se llevarán a cabo previo acuerdo con las organizaciones internacionales implicadas, principalmente la OTAN y la Unión Europea.
Misiones menos estáticas

El objetivo es que las actuales misiones de adiestramiento y asesoramiento en el Sahel no sean tan estáticas en términos geográficos. Hasta ahora, el grueso de la actividad pasa por la instrucción de las unidades en grandes bases, como es el caso de Koulikoro (Mali). La idea para el futuro pasa por formar a los instructores locales para que sean ellos los que lleven a cabo la formación de sus propias tropas. Y en lugar de hacerlo en estas grandes instalaciones, potenciar los desplazamientos de equipos móviles para llevar a cabo la actividad en puntos más diversos. No sólo en Mali, también en otros países de la región.

El Jefe del Estado Mayor de la Defensa (JEMAD), general del Aire Miguel Ángel Villarroya, admite este cambio de paradigma en una entrevista publicada en la revista Atalayar: “Es un nuevo cambio de filosofía y requiere de más efectivos”. Y añade: “España ya está planeando incrementar el número de efectivos, probablemente de manera notable”.
Poner el foco en África

La ministra de Defensa, Margarita Robles, ya ha elevado la voz desde Bruselas para pedir una mayor implicación de sus socios europeos en África. El pasado mes de diciembre, tras reunirse con sus homólogos, afirmó ante la prensa: “He hecho un llamamiento para que los demás países incrementen también su participación”. A su juicio, España “es el país que más está contribuyendo a las misiones de paz, sobre todo en África”, donde aporta “casi el 25% de los efectivos” de las misiones que mantiene la Unión Europea.

En las últimas semanas, además, el Sahel ha sufrido un recrudecimiento de la violencia terrorista, con atentados en Mali, Costa de Marfil, Nigeria y en la frontera entre Chad y Camerún. El Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores español condenó los ataques y manifestó su “compromiso” de “redoblar los esfuerzos” junto con la Unión Europea y la comunidad internacional para hacer frente “a los principales retos y desafíos” de la región.
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Re: Africa - G5 Sahel
« Responder #11 em: Julho 08, 2020, 01:18:57 pm »
Um estudo sobre a Operação Serval e as lições que o Exército Americano retirou.

France's War in Mali
Lessons for an Expeditionary Army


French Army operations in Mali (Operation Serval) in 2013 provide a model for designing and operating an expeditionary force, one that has a number of attributes and competencies that United States Army Chief of Staff General Raymond Odierno has indicated to be requirements for the Army. The model therefore provides a living example that illustrates what meeting those requirements entails, as well as the associated risks. As France's War in Mali: Lessons for an Expeditionary Army details, the French in Serval demonstrated that they are adept at quickly fielding small yet highly capable forces tailored for specific needs and objectives and reiteratively task organizing as the situation evolves. They have done so in part by pushing modularity below the battalion level, enabling them to disaggregate and reaggregate elements of their brigades. The French have also invested in technologies and vehicles designed to enhance the capabilities of its units at all echelons. Moreover, the French Army, particularly its expeditionary brigades, is for all intents and purposes a regionally aligned force that has a demonstrated ability to leverage its area-specific expertise to compensate for its small size and to work effectively with and among local populations. The French Army also appears to have an operational culture well suited for expeditionary warfare, particularly in austere environments and with limited resources. The aspects of French Army operations in Mali discussed in this report make the French Army a model for building the kind of expeditionary force envisioned by Odierno, and perhaps one that is also increasingly in line with future United States Army budgets. The French example also highlights compromises that are associated with becoming more expeditionary and the attendant risks.

https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/research_reports/RR700/RR770/RAND_RR770.pdf

 

 

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