A cooperação nórdica

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A cooperação nórdica
« em: Outubro 05, 2004, 11:32:02 pm »
Adjusting to the Realities of the Modern Military World: The Nordic Approach
(Source: Frost & Sullivan; issued Oct. 4, 2004)BR>
 Defending your own national territory from an assault by an enemy force is a scenario that few war-fighters in European countries have to prepare for in the modern world, unlike the almost inevitable budget restraints that are now being placed on Defence Ministers and their colleagues.  
As democracies realise that defence spending can be seriously reduced, Armed Forces are having to rethink and restructure their entire way of doing business. This challenge is one that the countries in the Nordic region have encountered and are now well on the way to overcoming through innovation and lateral thinking.  
The capabilities of a modern armed force are a much different proposition than those of the Cold War era - the dynamics have changed entirely from a war fighting force to one that is adapted to other activities apart from war, namely peacekeeping and policing. Modern forces need to be highly deployable, integrated, interoperable and specialist if there smaller forces are going to punch above their weight in the Allied battlespace. Unfortunately this means that as budgets decline the need to purchase high quality platforms and systems is significantly increasing. However, the impact of this has been substantially off-set by reducing the overall manpower of the forces.  
The Swedish Army has developed from a position of having 13 brigades (in reality only effective after mobilisation) to a new structure in which there will be six brigades, four of which are at an unprecedented level of readiness and availability.  
In Norway over five thousand personnel will be lost from 2002 to 2005 due to restructuring. The creation of the Norwegian Defence Logistics Organisation in January 2002 was partly a result of the cost efficiency drive; however, it is also a natural progression from the use of several units to provide logistic support. Two and half years later the organisation is viewed as a real success. Still it is evolving, which is key in this modern technological world, when being static is regarded as falling behind.  
This loss of personnel and cutbacks in force size presents opportunities for investment in technology and equipment. Each Nordic country has embraced the US-led network-enabled battlespace initiative. Only this week, the Finnish Defence Forces confirmed in a White Paper the revolution which their C4I capability is due to undergo, whilst Sweden, a long time supporter of network based defence, is regarded by many now as one of the front runners in the race to have a truly networked force.  
Currently in Norway, talks are under way to see how they can maximise the use of satellite technology to reform their strategic communications. Plus we should not forget the acquisition of the five frigates (one will be delivered every year starting next year); these excellent boats will provide a superb mobile defensive capability, especially with the Aegis weapons system software and NH-90 helicopters.  
However, it is not solely the type and amount of equipment that is being procured, it is the approach these countries are using which needs to be commended.  
The methodology, style and nature, of the acquisitions should be taken as benchmarks as to how future defence procurement can be organised. And so the Nordic Standard Helicopter Project (NSHP), a four country project initiated in the late 1990s when Sweden, Norway, Finland and Denmark realised that they were due to undertake similar procurement projects.  
However, the realisation of the advantages of economies of scale if the countries were to combine their capability need led to an extremely innovative procurement project. Those economies of scale don’t just limit themselves to the maths that if they buy 50 helicopters they’ll get a better deal than if they each purchase 17 individually. The project also means that the countries will receive substantial benefits in terms of training, through-life logistical costs, and perhaps just in general pooled operational experience – a lesson learned and shared is a future problem avoided.  
Of course this journey has not been a simple one. The participating countries have all experience days of hurdle jumping and problem solving, but the key to success is held in the persistence and diligence of the negotiators. Even Denmark, at a fairly late stage in the proceedings, decided that it would have to opt out of the project (It was the simple fact that ultimately the NH-90 was not going to fit their requirements) did not throw a spanner into the works. What was the reaction of the other countries that had all seen their bargaining power fall and their costs rise? They made sure that Denmark stayed on the programme in an observer capacity.  
Another such example of Nordic co-operation the Viking Project (set up in the mid 1990s in the hope of developing a affordable next-generation submarine design) was a response to Sweden, Denmark and Norway all requiring four submarines for service around 2005.  
Needless to say that this particular ride has not been a smooth one: Norway pulled out in 2002 and Denmark is due to follow at the end of the second design phase, leaving only Sweden. There is no doubt, however, that lessons have been, and will continue to be, learned from this experience, which is vital for the success of future projects.  
It is also obvious that this experience has not had a detrimental effect on the nation’s relationships. To date there are another nine joint procurement programs underway: the 120mm ammunition for Leopard 2, the Advanced Mortar System (AMOS), the Hearing Protector with Communications Equipment, the Forward Observer System, the 40mm Automatic Grenade Launcher, the All-terrain Carrier 206, the Naval Vessel Engines, the Torpedo-Mine-Sensor, and the Sea Surveillance System Project.  
The Armed Forces in the Nordic Region are examples of how future European Forces should be shaping up for the modern financial and physical battles. The impressive innovative joint procurement programs (which have been attracting interest from countries such as the United Kingdom and Singapore) alone are futuristic models of how countries can link together to overcome cost cutting.  
However, running alongside this the Nordic Forces have fully adapted to the requirements of future warfare. They are becoming highly technologically capable, nimble and specialised. By concentrating on areas such as mine-clearing and mountain reconnaissance they are paving the way to take up very definite roles in future NATO, and possibly European, operations. Their niche expertise in peacekeeping situations alongside these newly developed capabilities will make them invaluable to future international operations.  



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« Responder #1 em: Outubro 06, 2004, 08:41:40 pm »
Defence Restructuring Intensified – Defence Budget Increases
(Source: Norwegian Ministry of Defence; issued Oct. 6, 2004)
 The Government today put forward a defence budget totalling NOK 30.4 billion. This represents a real increase of NOK 70 million compared with the budget in 2004. In other words, the high level of defence funding in 2004 will be increased still further.  
[Defense Minister] Kristin Krohn Devold comments: “We are aiming to achieve all our restructuring objectives for the period 2002-2005. This will place Norwegian defence on a firm footing with a structure far better matched to the management of future threats and crises both nationally and internationally”.  
The defence budget for 2005 allows for the level of operational activities to be maintained and, in some areas, increased. It is proposed that the budget for additional costs associated with participation in operations abroad should be increased by some 10 percent. It is further proposed that the terminal grant on completion of initial military service should be increased from NOK 8,900 to the highest ever figure of NOK 15,000.  
Main objectives and priorities  
The fundamental purpose of the defence restructuring and the measures set out in the Long-Term plans for 2002-2005 and 2005-2008 is to strengthen the ability of the defence organisation, including the Armed Forces, to meet the challenges posed by future threats and crises. The new force structure, which will be kept under continuing review and development, is equally suited to the performance of missions at home or abroad.  
To strengthen the ability of Norwegian defence to meet the challenges posed by future threats and crises, the budget for 2005 is pitched at a level to allow achievement of all the restructuring objectives for the period 2002-2005 while at same time allowing for more ambitious targets than those originally set.  
The restructuring objectives endorsed by the Storting to enhance the quality and operational capabilities of Norwegian defence are:  
--A reduction in operating costs of at least NOK 2 billion compared with the year 2000 – the budget for 2005 envisages a saving of NOK 2¼ billion.  
--A reduction in the building stock area of 2 million square metres – the reduction in building stock area will exceed this target figure.  
--A reduction in defence personnel numbers of 5,000 compared with the year 2000 – the budget for 2005 will make it possible to achieve this target figure.  
In addition, the budget proposals will enable the further restructuring measures planned for the period 2005-2008 to be implemented as rapidly as possible. The achievement of these objectives is vital to the ongoing enhancement of the quality of the Armed Forces. All branches of the armed services are now better able to work together and to operate jointly with forces from other nations, while meeting specified requirements for reaction time and usability both nationally and in a NATO context.  
Norway’s ability to contribute highly professional military capabilities, always much sought after, has never been better than it is today. We have focused on enhancing our ability to react rapidly with highly competent personnel and modern equipment for the purposes of national crisis management. This focus will be maintained in the coming years. As a result of this work we can be sure that Norwegian defence is in better shape in terms of both quality and quantity, and more capable of carrying out its missions effectively – when and wherever necessary – than at any time in the past.  
Salient points of the budget proposals  
The operating budget for the defence sector is increased by 2.5 percent to NOK 21.2 billion. The investment budget is again very high in 2005 and amounts to NOK 9.2 billion. Investment in property, buildings and installations is reduced to below NOK 1.8 billion. Operational activities in 2005 will be maintained at the 2004 levels and even increased in some areas.  
The section of the budget earmarked for additional costs associated with operational aspects of missions abroad is increased by NOK 100 million. The funding of measures designed to enhance the status of military service is increased by approximately NOK 60 million. In 2005 significant funding is again included in the investment budget where priority is given to the consolidation and further modernisation of the new structure.  
Operating costs  
Budget item 1792 (Norwegian forces abroad) amounts to NOK 800 million. This relates only to the additional costs of operational activities. Furthermore, pay costs which were previously included under this budget item are now funded through the pay budgets of the service branches concerned. This allows more efficient use of defence resources overall. Finally there are substantial sums devoted to the preparation of military units, for example for missions abroad, which are funded under budget items other than item 1792.  
In 2005 Norway will play an active part in the fight against terrorism, especially through NATO’s operations in Afghanistan and in the Mediterranean. At the same time Norway will make substantial contributions elsewhere, including in the Balkans, and there are plans to participate in the EU-led Operation Althea in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Norway will increase its involvement in UN operations through its planned participation in Sudan.  
The Army will have its new organisational structure in place in 2005. This is important from the point of view of interoperability, i.e. being better able to operate jointly with other services and with allied units.  
The Navy will be starting to phase in the new Fridtjof Nansen Class frigate during autumn 2005. Operational aspects of the frigate’s programme, including days at sea, maintaining the pattern of sailing and the ship’s presence in North Norway may be regarded as firm.  
The Air Force will be focusing in 2005 on its aspects of operational capability and activities, such as maintaining the number of flying hours, and on the reallocation of freed resources to higher priority operational activities and materiel investments.  
The Home Guard receives an increase in its total operating and investment funding of NOK 1.4 billion over the coming four-year period. During 2005 the comprehensive quality reform of the Home Guard will be introduced. Funding for materiel investment increases by approximately 80 percent compared with 2004. 18 Home Guard Districts will be abolished and 13 new Districts will be re-established.  
The Coast Guard is allocated NOK 18 million for the acquisition of an extra vessel to strengthen the emergency response capability for tugs. Other Coast Guard activities will be maintained at the 2004 level with priority being given to patrolling the outer sea areas. A newly leased vessel, CGV Harstad, will be phased in early in 2005.  
A scheme has been worked out under which personnel who have suffered post-traumatic stress in connection with their participation in international crisis management operations will receive financial compensation. NOK 10 million has been set aside in the defence budget for 2005 to allow this scheme to be brought into effect from 1 January 2005.  
The materiel investment budget remains at a very high level in 2005, amounting to NOK 7.4 billion.  
Overall, the procurement of new frigates is the largest single project in 2005. Progress on this project is good and the first of class is already afloat. In addition, building of the new Skjold Class missile torpedo boats continues at the yard in Mandal.  
For the Air Force, the ongoing helicopter procurement represents the largest single project. The first NH-90 helicopter of a series of 14 is due to be delivered in June 2005. In addition, funding has also been allocated for a project for the replacement of combat aircraft.  
Investment funding for the Norwegian Army is allocated mainly to the acquisition of anti-armour weapons, armoured vehicles and tanks. A joint initiative focusing on a network based defence includes investment in Link 16, a project which allows the transfer of common situation pictures between units in the field and which also provides an enhanced capability for communicating with Norwegian units on a global basis.  
The investment budget for buildings and installations amounts to nearly NOK 1.8 billion. The construction of a multi-purpose hall at Setermoen is being started. Other major projects include extending the facilities for the Regional Training Area South East Norway and the provision of a building to accommodate the newly integrated defence leadership. With regard to jointly financed NATO projects, allocations are largely associated with the establishment of the Joint Warfare Centre at Jåtta, Stavanger, and the completion of three SINDRE II radar installations.  
The overarching aim of our personnel policy is to attract and retain highly motivated men and women with the blend of skills needed to meet the demands of defence missions today and tomorrow. We are now seeing clear, positive results emerging from the drive to recruit well qualified personnel. The competition for places at the officer candidate schools and military academies has been more intense in 2004 than for many years. It is especially gratifying that the proportion of women applying is increasing. Over 18 percent of all those attending officer candidate schools are now women. The efforts to attract well qualified personnel, and to increase the proportion of women recruited, will continue to be given high priority in 2005.  


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