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Re: Rússia
« Responder #660 em: Julho 23, 2019, 04:27:38 pm »

Warplanes from four countries face off in Asian confrontation

Warplanes from four countries faced off Tuesday in a chaotic and unprecedented confrontation above a small, disputed island off the coast of South Korea and Japan.
South Korea's Joint Chiefs of Staff issued a statement claiming they had fired more than 300 warning shots at a Russian A-50 command and control military aircraft early Tuesday morning after it had twice violated the country's airspace, the first such incident between the countries.
Moscow furiously denied Seoul's account of the encounter, claiming that South Korean military jets had dangerously intercepted two of its bombers during a planned flight over neutral waters.

But in a statement Tuesday afternoon, Japan's Ministry of Defense backed up South Korea's claims, saying the A-50 had flown over the islands and that Tokyo had scrambled fighters to intercept.
In a further complication, both South Korea and Japan said that two Chinese H-6 bombers had joined the Russian military aircraft on sorties through the region as well.
The confrontation took place over disputed islands in the East Sea, also known as the Sea of Japan, in the early hours of Tuesday morning.
The two, small islands, known to the Koreans as Dokdo and to the Japanese as Takeshima, are claimed by both countries.
What triggered the confrontation or why the planes were in the region is unclear, but analysts said the mission may have been designed by Russia to draw out South Korean and Japanese aircraft for intelligence gathering purposes.
"This mission will have given them a comprehensive map of the (South Korean) national air defense system," said Peter Layton, a former Royal Australian Air Force pilot and analyst at the Griffith Asia Institute.



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Re: Rússia
« Responder #661 em: Novembro 10, 2019, 03:55:42 pm »

"Tudo pela Nação, nada contra a Nação."



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Re: Rússia
« Responder #662 em: Dezembro 10, 2019, 11:11:56 am »

The new stations cover aerial space from the Middle East to Central Asia. They are able to track up to 5,000 flying targets simultaneously and in case of threats transmit information to S-500 ‘Prometheus' air defense systems loaded with hypersonic missiles.

« Última modificação: Dezembro 10, 2019, 11:12:55 am por mafets »
"Nunca, no campo dos conflitos humanos, tantos deveram tanto a tão poucos." W.Churchil




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Re: Rússia
« Responder #663 em: Dezembro 17, 2019, 05:38:48 pm »


"Based on the annual average dollar-to-ruble exchange rates, Russia is typically depicted as spending in the region of $60 billion per year on its military. This is roughly in line with the defense spending of medium-sized powers like the United Kingdom and France. However, anybody familiar with Russia’s military modernization program over the past decade will see the illogic: how can a military budget the size of the United Kingdom’s be used to maintain over a million personnel while simultaneously procuring vast quantities of capable military equipment?

Russian procurement dwarfs that of most European powers combined. Beyond delivering large quantities of weaponry for today’s forces, Russia’s scientists and research institutes are far along in development of hypersonic weapons, such as Tsirkon and Avangard, along with next-generation air defense systems like S-500. This volume of procurement and research and development should not be possible with a military budget ostensibly the same size as the United Kingdom’s. When theory checks in with practice, the problem with the approaches that return such answers is plain for anyone to see.

The reason for this apparent contradiction is that the use of market exchange rates grossly understates the real volume of Russian military expenditure (and that of other countries with smaller per-capita incomes, like China). Instead, any analysis of comparative military expenditure should be based on the use of purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates rather than market exchange rates. This alternative method takes differences in costs between countries into account. As we demonstrate, despite some shortcomings, PPP is a much more methodologically robust and defensible method of comparing defense spending across countries than the method of comparing spending using the market exchange rates that are commonly used by think tanks and academics. Using PPP, one finds that Russia’s effective military expenditure actually ranged between $150 billion and $180 billion annually over the last five years. That figure is conservative; taking into account hidden or obfuscated military expenditure, Russia may well come in at around $200 billion.

To put it simply, calculating Russian military expenditure based on purchasing power means that the United States spends only about four times more than Russia on defense, rather than ten times more when using market exchange rates. But this remains a crude comparison. The gap is even narrower when one digs into the differences in how this money is spent. At nearly 50 percent of federal budget spending on national defense, a large proportion of the Russian defense budget goes to procurement and research and development. By comparison, in other countries with large defense budgets, procurement spending tends to be much lower: in India, the United States, and the United Kingdom, spending is at about 20–25 percent.

Unlike some other large military spenders — for example, Saudi Arabia and India — Russia also produces most of its weaponry itself and does not buy its equipment from countries with higher costs. This means that effective Russian military expenditure is much larger given that a ruble spent at home buys considerably more than a dollar spent abroad. And, despite Russia’s largely stagnant economy, this higher level of spending has proven far more durable than media narratives have suggested.

Perhaps most importantly, the more methodologically sound approach to comparing defense spending based on PPP illustrates that the gap between U.S. expenditure on the one hand and that of Russia and China on the other has closed dramatically over the past 15 years. Today, when taken together, spending by Russia and China is roughly equal to U.S. defense expenditure, with Russia representing a much larger share than previously recognized.



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Re: Rússia
« Responder #664 em: Dezembro 20, 2019, 06:01:47 pm »
There is clear evidence that Russian military hardware received excellent publicity through wartime deployments in the Middle East – and Syria in particular. Russia has been steadily occupying second place in the world’s arms export rankings, just after the USA.
The national defence related exports are reported to bring around US$15 billion annually, with the Middle East share around US$2 billion. The only question that still remains un-answered is, whether the Russian arms dealers are paid in full for the weapons they provide to export customers. There are several media reports – including Russian ones – which estimate the delayed payments or unpaid amounts totalling around US$8 billion. Possibly, payment delays are a result of U.S. sanctions; but, due to the sensitivity of the subject, the whole story will never be uncovered.




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Re: Rússia
« Responder #665 em: Dezembro 24, 2019, 06:29:49 pm »
Rússia desligou-se da Internet mundial…e não ficou sem Internet

O Governo russo anunciou esta segunda-feira que se desligou, com sucesso, da Internet Mundial. Isto quer dizer que a Rússia deixou de depender da estrutura de DNS implementada à escala Global e da própria conectividade.

Por agora são apenas testes, que fazem parte do polémico programa RuNet. Será que outros países poderão seguir o mesmo caminho?

O programa RuNet tem como principal objetivo a dependência da Rússia no que diz respeito à conectividade mundial. Além disso, com esta solução de backup, a Rússia tem um plano B no caso de um ciberataque.

Os testes para desligar a Rússia da “Internet Mundial” decorreram durante vários dias. Nestes testes foram envolvidos ISPs daquele país, agências governamentais, empresas locais, entre outros. Na prática, com as alterações realizadas, a Rússia deixou de depender da estrutura de DNS mundial.

Para que serve o DNS?

Um dos serviços mais importante em qualquer rede de dados é o DNS (Domain Name System). Tal como o nome sugere, o DNS traduz nomes em endereços IP e vice-versa. Por exemplo, quando acedemos ao site www.google.com, o nosso sistema precisa de saber qual a máquina a contactar e pede ao servidor de DNS (que tem configurado) para que este lhe traduza o nome num endereço IP. Do lado do cliente o utilizador apenas tem de indicar qual o servidor de DNS a usar. Já do lado do servidor há um conjunto de parâmetros que temos de definir.

De acordo com as informações, foram criadas rotas de encaminhamento conseguindo transformar a RuNet a maior Intranet do mundo segundo refere o canal ZDNET.

Não há muitos detalhes sobre esta operação, sabendo-se apenas que foram testados vários cenários e desligados vários pontos core.

Lei da soberania da Internet

A Rússia quer aprovar a Lei da soberania da Internet. Esta lei, segundo as poucas informações, tem como principal foco a segurança nacional determinando que todos os ISPs locais redirecionem todo o tráfego da Internet através de pontos estratégicos sob a administração do Ministério das Comunicações da Rússia.

Esses pontos de comunicação podem funcionar como um comutador gigantesco para a conectividade externa à Internet da Rússia. Podem também funcionar como um “equipamento de vigilância na internet”, semelhante à tecnologia Great Firewall da China, como muitos defensores da privacidade apontaram.

Os seguintes utilizadores agradeceram esta mensagem: HSMW



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Re: Rússia
« Responder #666 em: Janeiro 15, 2020, 02:06:57 pm »

Ainda agora começou o ano e já houve a possibilidade da terceira guerra nuclear, um avião civil abatido por uma AA, e agora há alterações políticas na Rússia.


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