Votos totais: 37
Votação encerrada: Julho 25, 2004, 04:28:23 pm
PATRIOT MISSILE AIR DEFENSE SYSTEM, USAPatriot is a long-range, all-altitude, all-weather air defence system to counter tactical ballistic missiles, cruise missiles and advanced aircraft. Patriot (MIM-104) is produced by Raytheon in Massachusetts and Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control in Florida. As well as the USA, Patriot is in service with Germany, Greece, Israel, Japan, Kuwait, the Netherlands, Saudi Arabia and Taiwan. It has been cleared for sale to Egypt.Patriot missile systems were deployed by US forces during Operation Iraqi Freedom. The systems were stationed in Kuwait and successfully destroyed a number of hostile surface-to-surface missiles using the new PAC-3 and guidance enhanced missiles.MISSILEThe Patriot missile is equipped with a track-via-missile (TVM) guidance system. Midcourse correction commands are transmitted to the guidance system from the mobile Engagement Control Centre. The target acquisition system in the missile acquires the target in the terminal phase of flight and transmits the data using the TVM downlink via the ground radar to the Engagement Control Station for final course correction calculations. The course correction commands are transmitted to the missile via the Missile Track Command Uplink. The high explosive 90kg warhead is situated behind the terminal guidance section.The range of the missile is 70km and maximum altitude is greater than 24km. The minimum flight time is the time to arm the missile, which is less than 9s, and the maximum flight time is less than 3½mins.PAC-2 GEM+ UPGRADERaytheon has developed the Patriot Guidance Enhanced Missile Plus (GEM+), an upgrade to the PAC-2 missile. The upgrade involves a new fuze and the insertion of a new low noise front end which increases the seeker's sensitivity to low radar cross-section targets. The first upgrade forebodies were delivered to the US Army in November 2002. 148 missiles are to be upgraded under the first production contract.PATRIOT ADVANCED CAPABILITY (PAC-3)A new Patriot Advanced Capability (PAC-3) missile has increased effectiveness against tactical ballistic and cruise missiles, through the use of advanced hit-to-kill technology. Lockheed Martin is the prime contractor with Raytheon the systems integrator. The PAC-3 has a Ka-band millimetre wave seeker developed by Boeing. The missile guidance system enables target destruction through the kinetic energy released by hitting the target head-on. 16 PAC-3 missiles can be loaded on a launcher, compared to four PAC-2 missiles.PAC-3 entered low rate initial production in late 1999 and first LRIP production missiles of a total of 92 were delivered in September 2001. A contract for 88 missiles was placed in December 2002 and another for 12 in March 2003. The missile was first deployed during Operation Iraqi Freedom in March/April 2003. In February 2004, Lockheed Martin was awarded a production contract for 159 PAC-3 missiles, which includes 22 missiles to replace those expended in Iraq. Deliveries are to complete by April 2006. The Netherlands and South Korea have requested sales of PAC-3 missiles and Lockheed Martin and EADS (formerly DaimlerChrysler Aerospace) have established a joint venture company for the production of the system for the German Air Force.M901 LAUNCHING STATIONThe M901 Launching Station transports, points and launches the Patriot missile. Each launcher has four missiles. The launcher is remotely operated via a VHF or fibre optic data link from the Engagement Control Station, which provides both the missile prelaunch data and the fire command signal. ENGAGEMENT CONTROL STATIONThe AN/MSQ-104 Engagement Control Station is the only manned station in a Patriot Fire Unit. The Control Station communicates with the M901 Launching Stations, with other Patriot batteries and the higher command headquarters.The Control Station is manned by three operators, who have two consoles and a communications station with three radio relay terminals. The digital Weapon Control Computer is located next to the VHF Data Link Terminals.RADARThe AN//MPQ-53 phased array radar carries out search, target detection, track and identification, missile tracking and guidance and electronic counter-countermeasures (ECCM) functions. The radar is mounted on a trailer and is automatically controlled by the digital weapons control computer in the Engagement Control Station, via a cable link. The radar system has a range of up to 100km, capacity to track up to 100 targets and can provide missile guidance data for up to nine missiles.The US Army Patriot radars are being upgraded by Raytheon. The upgrade kits provide greater power for the radar and the addition of a wideband capability for improved target discrimination.TARGET ENGAGEMENTA target engagement can be carried out in manual, semi-automatic or automatic mode. When the decision has been made to engage the target, the Engagement Control Station selects the Launch Station or Stations and pre-launch data is transmitted to the selected missile. After launch, the Patriot missile is acquired by the radar. The command uplink and the TVM downlink allow the missile's flight to be monitored and provide missile guidance commands from the weapon control computer. As the missile approaches the target, the TVM guidance system is activated and the missile is steered towards the target. A proximity fuse detonates the high explosive warhead.
S-300PMU1 The S-300PMU1 is an extended range version of S-300PMU with a limited anti-ballistic missile capability, including capabilities against aerodynamic targets with speeds up to 3 kilometers/second. The S-300 PMU1 mobile multichannel air defence missile system can defeat modem and future aircrafts, strategic cruise missiles, tactical battlefield ballistic missiles and other targets with a reflection surface up to 0.02 sq. m. flying at speeds up to 2.800 m/s in massive enemy air raids and heavy clutter and severe ECM environments. This system was developed from S-300 PMU and differs from it by improved technical and operational characteristics. These improvements were achieved owing to incorporation of new engineering innovations in the S-300 PMU, based on many years of experience gained during its operation and perfection of mathematical support, using state-of-the-art computer aids.
S-400 SA-20 Triumf The Triumf S-400 , also known as the S-300PMU3, is a new generation of air defense and theater anti-missile weapon developed by the Almaz Central Design Bureau as an evolution of the S-300PMU [SA-10] family. This new system is intended to detect and destroy airborne targets at a distance of up to 400 km (2- 2.5 times greater than the previous S-300PMU system). The main difference between the PMU-2 and the S-400 is greater engagement range of the latter, about 250 mi. against aircraft versus 125 mi., a larger number of targets it can track and improved electronic counter-countermeasures. The Triumf system includes radars capable of detecting low-signature targets. And the anti-missile capability of the system has been increased to the limits established by the ABM Treaty demarcation agreements -- it can intercept targets with velocities of up to 4.8 km/sec, corresponding to a ballistic missile range of 3,500 km. The system was developed through the cooperation of the Almaz Central Design Bureau, Fakel Machine Building Design Bureau, Novosibirsk Scientific Research Institute of Instruments, St. Petersburg Design Bureau of Special Machine Building and other enterprises. The Fakel Machine Building Design Bureau has developed two new missiles for Triumf. The "big" missile [designation otherwise unknown] has a range of up to 400 km and will be able to engage "over- the-horizon [OTH]" targets using a new seeker head developed by Almaz Central Design Bureau. This seeker can operate in both a semiactive and active mode, with the seeker switched to a search mode on ground command and homing on targets independently. Targets for this missile include airborne early warning and control aircraft as well as jammers. The 9M96 medium-range missile, which comes in two versions (9M96E and 9M96E2), is designed to destroy aircraft and air- delivered weapons at ranges in excess of 120 km. The missile is small-- considerably lighter than the ZUR 48N6Ye used in the S-300PMU1 systems and the Favorit. The missile is equipped with an active homing head and has an estimated single shot kill probability of 0.9 for manned aircraft and 0.8 for unmanned maneuvering aircraft. a gas-dynamic control system enables the 9M96 missile to maneuver at altitudes of up to 35 km at forces of over 20g, which permits engagment of non- strategic ballistic missiles with trajectory speed up to 4.8km/s. One 9M96 modification will become the basic long-range weapon of Air Force combat aircraft, and may become the standardized missile for air defense SAM systems, ship-launched air defense missile systems, and fighter aircraft. The 9M96E2 missiles is based on all-new components, use new high-energy solid fuel and an advanced guidance and control system which has made it possible to minimize their size. The 9M96E2 missile can intercept all types of aircraft, including tactical ballistic and medium-range theater missiles flying at altitudes from 5 meters to 30 kilometers. Their exceptionally high accuracy is ensured by the missile's main secret, the so-called transverse control engine, which rules out misses during the final approach trajectory. The transverse control engine is still without parallel in the world. Russia's top-of-the-line 9M96E2 guided air defense missile is being marketed by Russia's state-owned arms trader Rosvooruzhenye. A mockup of the missile was set up at an Athens arms exhibition in October 1998. These new missiles can be accomodated on the existing SAM system launchers of the S-300PMU family. A container with four 9M96's can be installed in place of one container with the 5V55 or 48N6 missiles, and thus the the standard launcher intended for four 48N6Ye missiles can accommodate up to 16 9M96Ye missiles. The Triumf air defense system can also use 48N6E missiles of the S-300PMU-1 system and 48N6E2 missiles of the S-300PMU-2 Favorit system, making it possible to smoothly change over to the production of the new generation system. It will include the previous control complex, though supporting not six but eight SAM systems, as well as multifunctional radar systems illumination and guidance, launchers, and associated autonomous detection and target indication systems. The state tests of the S-400 system reportedly began in 1999, with the initial test on 12 February 1999 using the 48N6E missiles of the S-300PMU-1 system. As of May 1999 the testing of S-400 air defense system was reportedly nearing completion at Kapustin Yar, with the first systems of this kind to be delivered to the Moscow Air Force and Air Defense District in the fourth quarter of 1999. However, as of August 1999 government testing of the S-400 was slated to begin at the end of 1999, with the first system complex slated for delivery in late 2000. The sources of the apparent one-year delay in the program are unclear, though they may involve some combination of technical and financial problems with this program. Russian air defense troops conducted a test of the new anti-aircraft missile system S-400 on 07 April 2000. At that time, Air Force Commander Anatoly Kornukov said that serial production of the new system would begin in June 2000. Kornukov said air defense troops would get one S-400 launcher system by the end of 2000, but it would be armed with missiles of the available S-300 system. On condition of normal funding, radars with an acquisition range of 500-600 km should become operational by 2002-2003. However, other sources report that while it was ordered by the Defence Ministry, the military has nothing to pay for it with, so it is unclear when the Russian military will get this new weapon. The Russian Air Force is studying a reduction in the number of types of air defense weapons, and it is possible that Triumf will become the only system being developed, providing defense both in the close-range and mid-range as well long-range zones.
penso que o S-400 não pode ser transportado por um C-130)
A Espanha acho que também já adquiriu algumas baterias ( alguém confirma ? )
A Espanha acho que também já adquiriu algumas baterias ( alguém confirma ? )
E dá um bocado de inveja ver na tv a Grécia a "montar" os Patriot para defender a vila Olimpica.
A mim não me dá inveja nenhuma... Não gostaria nada de ter que pagar a conta dos gregos da segurança dos Jogos Olímpicos, e é sinal de que temos um país mais seguro do que a Grécia...
Votei no S-400, mas pela simples razão que é o sistema mais capaz dos apresentados. Isto não quer dizer que seja o mais bem adequado às nossas necessidades.Primeiro é preciso saber para que é que precisamos de um sistema anti-aéreo de área. Quem são os potenciais inimigos? Qual é o principal alvo? Aviões? Mísseis balísticos? Mísseis de cruzeiro?