F/A-22 em risco?

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JLRC

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« Responder #30 em: Julho 10, 2004, 01:38:18 pm »
F/A-22 Raptor Has No Role As a Bomber, Legendary Fighter Pilot Says
 
 
(Source: Project On Government Oversight; dated June 17, web-posted June 22, 2004)
 
 
 
Plans by the U.S. Air Force to make the F/A-22 tactical fighter more politically appealing by creating a bomber version of the aircraft should be scrapped, former legendary fighter pilot, aircraft designer, strategic bomber analyst, Air Force Colonel Everest Riccioni says in an upcoming paper supporting these views. His comments come as the Senate and House tussle over funding for the program.  
 
There is no proper, “justifiable niche” for the F/A-22 fighter aircraft to be modified for an air-to-surface/ground support role, or bomber, Riccioni argues in his paper. Riccioni, now retired, has no financial associations with any defense contractors, including his former employer Northrop Grumman.  
 
“The F-22’s original design for stealth and supercruise makes it singularly resistant to modification,” writes Riccioni, the legendary fighter pilot, member of the so-called “Fighter Mafia,” and pioneer of supersonic cruise technology in the 1970s and the Lightweight Fighter Program. “Bombs must be carried internally on stealthy aircraft. The internal weapons bay of the F–22, designed to contain only air-to-air missiles, is necessarily small and it can carry at most only two 1,000 lb, bombs together with a few air-to-air missiles.”  
 
“This puts the Raptor squarely in competition with the very accurate, highly specialized, proven, stealthiest strike aircraft in the world, the F-117 Nighthawk. But the F-117 carries two 2,000 lb bombs - twice the bomb load of the F-22 - at half the F-22’s cost.”  
 
“Here we go again,” said POGO Executive Director Danielle Brian. “The Pentagon is once again trying to make an overpriced and unneeded weapons system more appealing to the public by adding bells and whistles. The only winners are the defense contractors who fatten their bottom lines.”  
 
Among the other conclusions of Riccioni’s soon to be released paper, “History of the USAF F-22 Raptor Acquisition: A National Tragic-Comedy”:  
 
--The F/A-22 Raptor originally was expected to cost “not a dollar more than the F-15C,” according to Riccioni. (In March 2004, the General Accounting Office estimated that the Air Force would only be able to purchase 218 F/A-22’s with the $72 billion total cost of the program. Based on those numbers, the aircraft would cost roughly $330 million each to develop and build.)  
 
--The F/A-22 has no role that can’t be filled by today’s current U.S. fighter aircraft. “Al Qaeda doesn’t train, enlist, or use fighter pilots,” Riccioni writes. “Terrorists do not employ fighter forces. There is no need for new air superiority fighters.”  
 
--The reduced numbers of F/A-22 aircraft will adversely affect the Air Force mission. “Most important - 175-250 fighters do not allow for multiple, simultaneous missions like the thousands in our F-15, F-16, and F-18 fleets can perform,” his paper concludes.  
 
--The F-22 was defined and conceived during the Cold War to penetrate deep into Russia, achieving air superiority, to break up the expected large formations of Warsaw Pact bombers that were to enter and destroy Europe. Now the threats have been removed, Riccioni argues.  
 
The U.S. Senate version of the 2005 Defense Authorization bill cuts $280 million from the F/A-22 fighter aircraft program and “is a step in the right direction,” Brian added.  
 
Debate on the Senate version of the 2005 Defense Authorization is expected as early as this week. The House version of the bill would fully fund the Air Force request for 24 F/A-22s at a total cost of $4.2 billion while the Senate’s would cut the number to 22 aircraft, or $3.9 billion, giving the Air Force time “to improve its production delivery schedule.”  
 
The Senate provision reflects growing concerns about the need for this extraordinarily expensive system during these times of growing deficits. Production of this unneeded, Cold War aircraft should be halted. Even if the F/A-22 were operational during the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan it likely would never have left the hanger.
 

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« Responder #31 em: Setembro 23, 2004, 12:30:16 am »
Lockheed Martin F/A-22 Program Focused on Reliable Production, Solid Performance and Expanding Capabilities Delivering Air Dominance to the Air Force
 
 
(Source: Lockheed Martin; issued Sept. 15, 2004)
 
 
 WASHINGTON --- Lockheed Martin’s Deputy Vice President for Business Development Rob Weiss said yesterday that the Lockheed Martin-led Raptor industry team has reached a new level of program maturity with reliable production, solid performance and expanding capabilities.  
 
Speaking to reporters at the 2004 Air Force Association National Conference, Weiss said the F/A-22 program is healthy, solid and on track. He added that significant advances in production have been made over the past year, and aircraft committed for delivery in 2004 are completing production build according to schedule.  
 
“We are delivering high-quality aircraft faster than ever before, meeting our 2004 commitment to the Air Force, and we have begun the initial stages of Raptor modernization,” Weiss said. “We are excited that the Air Force’s operational testing is nearing completion and look forward to a full-rate production decision.”  
 
F/A-22 modernization is a robust, long-term plan to inject emerging technologies and expand capabilities.  
Weiss pointed out that the F/A-22’s performance is exceeding requirements in key areas such as stealth, speed, agility and sensor systems performance at Edwards, Nellis and Tyndall Air Force bases, routinely demonstrating the Raptor’s transformational war fighting capabilities.  
 
The Air Force began F/A-22 Initial Operational Test and Evaluation (IOT&E) in late April 2004, and all indications are that IOT&E is proceeding well, although it is not expected to be complete until later this year. According to the Air Force, all scenarios scheduled to be flown are complete.  
 
“In addition to evaluating data gathered during flight scenarios, the Air Force will use modeling and simulation tools to simulate flying operations and maintenance. The Air Combat Simulator in Marietta, Georgia, is being used for the Modeling and Simulation portion of IOT&E,” Weiss said.  
 
“The F/A-22 program is concluding development, ramping up for full-rate production and delivering superior jets to the Air Force,” he said. “All the while we are working closely with the Air Combat Command to craft a prudent modernization ‘flight plan’ that will keep the Raptor on the cutting edge of survivability and lethality for decades to come.”  
 
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« Responder #32 em: Março 31, 2005, 12:39:42 am »
Pentagon Contract Announcement
 
 
(Source: US Department of Defense; issued March 25, 2005)
 
 
 McDonnell Douglas Corp., Saint Louis, Mo., is being awarded a $6,754,307 cost-plus fixed-fee contract modification. This contract is for F/A-22 Spiral 3A Phase A+ integration support to integrate the Small Diameter Bomb on the F/A-22.  
 
This effort includes ensuring functional, mechanical, electrical and environmental compatibility between the F/A-22 and the Small Diameter Bomb; conducting supersonic free-stream wind tunnel testing; continuing strut design and strut interface between the F/A-22 and the Small Diameter Bomb carriage system to finalize a production design; planning and supporting Instrumented Vehicle flight testing; and analyzing data. At this time, $5,218,691 of the funds have been obligated. This work will be complete by March 2006.  
 
The Air Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla., is the contracting activity (FA8682-04-C-0019, P00050).  
 
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« Responder #33 em: Abril 20, 2005, 01:56:27 pm »
DOD Approves Lockheed Martin F/A-22 Raptor Aircraft for Full-Rate Production
 
 
(Source: Lockheed Martin; issued Apr. 19, 2005)
 
 
 MARIETTA, Ga.--- The Lockheed Martin F/A-22 Raptor fighter aircraft has been given the green light by Department of Defense acquisition officials to enter into full-rate production.  
 
An acquisition decision information paper released by the Department of Defense on April 18 states "The Under Secretary of Defense (Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics) [Michael W. Wynne] approved the full rate production capability of the F/A-22." This decision officially transitions the Air Force's premier fighter program to a new level of confidence and maturity.  
 
"This is great news for warfighters whether they are soldiers on the ground or airmen guarding the skies," said Larry Lawson, Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company executive vice president and general manager of the F/A-22 program.  
 
"This decision reflects confidence in the performance of the aircraft demonstrated during an exhaustive Independent Operational Test & Evaluation program as well as the team's proven ability to produce the aircraft," Lawson added. "This is the culmination of a tremendous effort put forward by many in the Air Force as well as industry. The Raptor team understands the overwhelming capability the F/A-22 provides is vital today and must also be relevant for three to four decades to come."  
 
This F/A-22 program milestone follows initial operational test findings in February and March by both the Air Force and the Department of Defense, which judged the aircraft to be "overwhelming effective" in its performance. Air Force pilots will be able to dominate any engagement with the Raptor. The F/A-22 will provide protection for troops no matter where they are, to an extent never before possible.  
 
The F/A-22 Raptor, the world's most advanced fighter, is built by Lockheed Martin in partnership with Boeing and Pratt & Whitney. Parts and subsystems are provided by approximately 1,000 suppliers in 42 states. F/A-22 production takes place at Lockheed Martin Aeronautics facilities in Palmdale, Calif.; Meridian, Miss.; Marietta, Ga.; and Fort Worth, Texas, as well as at Boeing's plant in Seattle, Wash. Final assembly and initial flight testing of the Raptor occurs at the Marietta plant facilities.  
 
The Raptor is slated to reach initial operational capability in December 2005 at Langley Air Force Base, Va. The F/A-22's balanced design of stealth, supercruise speed, supportability and super-agility, along with its advanced integrated avionics, will enable combat commanders to change the way future wars are fought.  
 
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« Responder #34 em: Junho 09, 2005, 01:00:27 pm »
Report: Flight Control System Problem Caused F/A-22 Crash
 
 
(Source: US Air Force; issued June 8, 2005)
 
 
 LANGLEY AIR FORCE BASE, Va. --- A flight control system problem caused an F/A-22 Raptor to crash on the runway at Nellis Air Force Base, Nev., on Dec. 20, according to an Air Force report released June 8.  
 
The pilot ejected and sustained minor injuries. The $133.3-million aircraft, assigned to the 422nd Test and Evaluation Squadron at Nellis, was destroyed when it crashed. Additional damage was limited to an arresting cable, runway guide sign, runway light and the runway itself.  
 
The flight control system malfunction was caused by a brief power interruption to the aircraft’s three rate sensor assemblies, which caused them to fail. The assemblies measure angular acceleration in all three axes: pitch, roll and yaw. With three failed assemblies, the F/A-22 is not able to fly, investigators said.  
 
When the pilot shut down engines for maintenance servicing, he left the auxiliary power unit running. Based on technical order guidance, he believed the power unit would supply continuous power to the flight control system. However, there was a less-than-one second power interruption to the assemblies during engine shutdown.  
 
There is no automatic warning of this condition. To discover it, the pilot would have had performed a diagnostic test. The pilot accomplished a successful test before engine shutdown, and because the power unit was on, he believed a second test was unnecessary.  
 
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« Responder #35 em: Junho 16, 2005, 01:49:20 pm »
Lockheed Martin F/A-22 Raptor Exceeds Expectations in Production and Performance
 
 
(Source: Lockheed Martin; issued Jun 14, 2005)
 
 
 PARIS --- The Lockheed Martin Raptor industry team has reached a new level of program maturity with reliable production, solid performance and expanding capabilities, according to Orville Prins, vice president of business development for Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company.  
 
The F/A-22 Raptor fighter aircraft recently received the green light by Department of Defense acquisition officials to enter into full-rate production. This program milestone follows initial operational test findings in February and March by both the Air Force and the Department of Defense, which judged the aircraft to be "overwhelming effective" in its performance. Air Force pilots will be able to dominate any engagement with the Raptor. The F/A-22 will provide protection for troops no matter where they are, to an extent never before possible.  
 
In a presentation called "The F/A-22 Raptor: Leading Edge of Global Strike ... the Unmatched Advantage" today at the Paris Air Show, Prins described the F/A-22 as "real, required and relevant" with advanced technologies never before designed into a single fighter.  
 
"The Raptor is now in full rate production and capable of dominating air- to-air and air-to-ground combat. No fighter in the world comes close to the F/A-22 with its overwhelming capabilities," said Prins. "The success in this program to date is the culmination of a tremendous effort by many in the Air Force as well as industry. Our Raptor team understands that the dominant capability the F/A-22 provides is vital today and must also be relevant for three to four decades to come."  
 
The F/A-22 Raptor, the world's most advanced fighter, is built by Lockheed Martin in partnership with Boeing and Pratt & Whitney. Parts and subsystems are provided by approximately 1,000 suppliers in 42 states. F/A-22 production takes place at Lockheed Martin Aeronautics facilities in Marietta, Ga.; Fort Worth, Tex.; Palmdale, Calif.; and Meridian, Miss., as well as at Boeing's plant in Seattle, Wash. Final assembly and initial flight testing of the Raptor occurs at the Marietta plant facilities.  
 
The Raptor is slated to reach initial operational capability in December 2005 at Langley Air Force Base, Va. The F/A-22's balanced design of stealth, supercruise speed, supportability and super-agility, along with its advanced integrated avionics, will enable combat commanders to change the way future wars are fought.  
 
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« Responder #36 em: Abril 19, 2006, 09:25:48 pm »
Mais comentários pouco favoráveis ao F22...

http://www.niemanwatchdog.org/index.cfm ... isid=00197

The F-22 Raptor is said to be invisible...until it isn't
ASK THIS | April 19, 2006
Analysts liken fighter plane to a WWII Messerschmidt, saying it is a technological marvel with the latest weapons but that it will be poor in combat.

Q. Can the Raptor see the enemy first, outnumber it, outmaneuver it, and kill it quickly?

Q. How does the Raptor stack up against the F-16?

Q. Why did Congress cap production of the Raptor at half the number sought by the Air Force?

This report first appeared in the Panama City News Herald.

By Ed Offley
eoffley@pcnh.com

It was the most impressive fighter aircraft seen to date.

Designed around a breakthrough technology, it was heavily armed with the latest air-to-air weapons and was capable of flying faster than its enemies and destroying previously invulnerable enemy aircraft.

One British pilot called it “the most formidable fighter” that the world had seen to date. Its pilots said it was a delight to fly.

Yet military historians today say the German Messerschmidt 262 fighter had little effect on the air war over Europe during World War II, and two military aviation experts last week warned that the U.S. Air Force has likely set itself up to repeat the harsh lesson of the Me-262 “Stormbird” in a future conflict against an adversary with a modern air force.

Simply put, said Pierre Sprey and James P. Stevenson, the F-22 Raptor is shaping up to be the Sturmvogel of the 21st century: a dazzling piece of technology that fatally ignores some of the unbending realities of aerial combat.

On surface, the Raptor debate ended six months ago. After years of controversy, the Air Force and Defense Department reached a final agreement on the Raptor program, with DoD and Congress approving full production of the stealth fighter while capping the program at 183 aircraft, a 50-percent reduction of the 381 planes that the service had long said it needed at a minimum.

(For Tyndall Air Force Base, where the Raptor pilot training program is located, this has meant a reduction in training squadrons from two to one, with 29 of the sleek fighters to be used in preparing pilots for combat units.)

But to Sprey, a founding member of the so-called “fighter mafia” group that during the 1960s and 1970s ramrodded the F-15, F-16 and A-10 programs into being despite fierce internal opposition, and military author Stevenson, who has written extensively on the Navy’s F/A-18 and A-12 fighters, the Air Force has created a major crisis in its future combat capability by sticking to the Raptor program.

The two analysts presented their stark findings to a symposium at the nonprofit Center for Defense Information on Friday in Washington, D.C. The two analysts provided their findings to The News Herald, and Sprey elaborated on the issues in a telephone interview.

Sprey said his briefing focused on the time-tested factors that define an effective fighter plane: (1) See the enemy first; (2) outnumber the enemy; (3) outmaneuver the enemy to fire, and (4) kill the enemy quickly.

“The Raptor is a horrible failure on almost every one of those criteria,” Sprey said.

The stellar attribute of the F-22 — its invisibility on enemy radar due to a computer-aided stealth design — is a “myth,” Sprey said. That is because in order to locate the enemy beyond visual range, the Raptor (like every other fighter) must turn on its own radar, immediately betraying its location.

Nor is the aircraft design effective simply because its advocates insist so, Sprey said. The 1980s-era F-117 stealth fighter was supposed to be invisible too, but post-Gulf War studies showed that the aircraft had been spotted by Iraq’s ground-based radars, he said.

And in the 77-day aerial campaign against Serbia in 1999, the adversary’s “1950s-era radar” managed to locate and shoot down two F-117s, Stevenson pointed out in his presentation. The situation is actually worse today, he said, because many nations have acquired advanced missiles that can home in on radar emissions.

“Who do you want in a dark alley?” Stevenson asked. “The cop with the flashlight, or the crook with a gun that fires light-homing bullets?”

Because the Raptor ultimately ballooned into a weapon that costs $361 million per copy, even Congress could not stomach the total program cost exceeding $65 billion, Sprey said. As a result, the Air Force is now committed to fielding a fighter program that lacks sufficient numbers to prevail in a major conflict, however effective the individual aircraft may be.

“Hitler had 70 Me-262s in combat,” Sprey said. “They were crushed by the force of 2,000 inferior P-51s that the United States had in the air.”

Early reports from mock deployments of the Raptor also show a major shortfall in the fighter’s sustainability in combat, Sprey said.

“The F-16 costs one-tenth of the F-22 and flies three times as often due to the issues of stealth, complexity and maintenance affecting the Raptor,” Sprey said. Sustainability and the number of aircraft available to fight on any given day, he added, are “vastly more important” than the quality of the F-22. “You have to have numerical superiority to win.”

On the last two points, maneuverability and capability for a “quick kill,” the two analysts assert that the Raptor is inferior to the F-16 and several allied fighter designs in the crucible of “energy-maneuverability.”

“Some (experts) assert that in the next air war,” all of the radars will be off and the air war will merge to air combat maneuvering,” Stevenson observed.

The Raptor’s performance in that mode will be “disastrous,” Sprey added.

“The only thing that will bail the U.S. Air Force out of this mess is the fact that they still have a lot of F-16s in service,” Sprey said, “The day they send the F-16s to the ‘boneyard’ is the day the service becomes a non-Air Force.”
Ai de ti Lusitânia, que dominarás em todas as nações...
 

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emarques

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« Responder #37 em: Abril 20, 2006, 01:01:19 am »
Não é suposto os aviões modernos poderem receber os dados de radar de outros aviões? Ou seja, um caça não pode estar a receber a localização do adversário sem ter que ligar o radar?
Ai que eco que há aqui!
Que eco é?
É o eco que há cá.
Há cá eco, é?!
Há cá eco, há.
 

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« Responder #38 em: Abril 20, 2006, 09:18:42 am »
Sim, emarques, ou pelo menos é assim que vejo o funcionamento de data links mais recentes. Também já li qualquer coisa sobre planos que existem para dotar os E-2 de capacidade para fazer actualizações de meio curso a mísseis anti-aéreos, pelo que também - eventualmente - também o será capaz de fazer para os ar-ar...
Mas se não existirem AWACS disponíveis?
O F22 não tem IRST, pois não?
Ai de ti Lusitânia, que dominarás em todas as nações...
 

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emarques

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« Responder #39 em: Abril 21, 2006, 01:57:49 pm »
De uma rápida busca:
Citar
Intra-flight data link automatically shares tactical information between two or more F-22s. Airframe contains provisions for IRST and side-mounted phased-array radar.


Ou seja, um F-22 pode ter o radar ligado e "servir de AWACS" a outro que esteja mais próximo dos alvos. Os suecos parece que fazem isso com os Grippen.
Ai que eco que há aqui!
Que eco é?
É o eco que há cá.
Há cá eco, é?!
Há cá eco, há.
 

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NVF

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« Responder #40 em: Abril 21, 2006, 03:06:48 pm »
Ou seja, se andam a trocar informacoes via datalink, estas emissoes podem ser detectadas e la' se vai o stealth.  :)
Everyone you will ever meet knows something that you don't.
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TazMonster

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« Responder #41 em: Abril 21, 2006, 04:23:00 pm »
Só aqui uma achega relativamente ao preço das aeronaves.
Li, faz uns tempos, e não me lembro onde (sorry!!! :? ) que nos EUA o preço do avião é calculado com base no numero de unidades a construir e mais o lucro do fabricante (e é claro que aqui está incluido o custo de I&D). Já na Alemanha (não sei se no resto da europa) o custo unitário do avião inclui também a manutenção prevista no aparelho ao longo de toda a sua vida útil).
Não sei se alguém tem mais dados ou informações sobre isto...
Taz
 

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emarques

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« Responder #42 em: Abril 21, 2006, 11:19:47 pm »
Citação de: "NVF"
Ou seja, se andam a trocar informacoes via datalink, estas emissoes podem ser detectadas e la' se vai o stealth.  ;)

De qualquer forma, também podem ter o radar desligado e limitar-se a detectar o adversário pelas emissões de radar.
Ai que eco que há aqui!
Que eco é?
É o eco que há cá.
Há cá eco, é?!
Há cá eco, há.
 

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NVF

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« Responder #43 em: Abril 22, 2006, 12:11:41 am »
Desconheco as caracteristicas dos protocolos militares usados nos links 11, 16 e por ai fora, mas se as aeronaves tem que se sincronizar entao ha' troca de pacotes e o 'silencio' electromagnetico nao existe.
Everyone you will ever meet knows something that you don't.
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emarques

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« Responder #44 em: Abril 22, 2006, 03:54:24 pm »
Sim, seria preciso saber exactamente como é que funcionam as ligações para saber se existe silêncio ou não. Duvido muito é que os americanos vão publicar as especificações do protocolo de comunicação... :mrgreen:
Ai que eco que há aqui!
Que eco é?
É o eco que há cá.
Há cá eco, é?!
Há cá eco, há.